Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Terms in this set (42)
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.
origins of replication
Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork.
The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction.
Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.
An enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands.
A protein that functions in DNA replication, helping to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork.
single-strand binding protein
Binds to and stabilizes single-stranded DNA until it can be used as a template
A DNA cutting enzyme that excises damaged DNA.
Repeated DNA sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells.
Watson and Crick
Developed the double helix model of DNA.
Devised an experiment that showed that only the DNA of T2 phages enters a bacterial cell during infection.
Discovered transformation during an experiment that involved injecting mice with smooth S cells, rough R cells, heat-killed S cells, and heat-killed S cells with living R cells.
McCarty, Avery, & MacLeod
Confirmed that the transforming agent in Griffith's experiment was DNA.
one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
The premise that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide.
Synthesis of an mRNA molecule from a DNA template.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
Carries genetic message from the DNA to he protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell.
Discovered that DNA composition varies, but the amount of adenine is always the same as thymine and the amount of cytosine is always the same as guanine.
Meselson & Stahl
Determined that DNA replication is semiconservative.
The synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA.
Complex particles that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains.
The modification of mRNA before it leaves the nucleus that is unique to eukaryotes.
The initial mRNA transcript that is transcribed from a protein coding gene. Also called pre-mRNA.
Three-nucleotide long set that specifies a specific amino acid for a polypeptide chain.
The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an mRNA transcript.
A promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
Modified 3' end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides.
In prokaryotes, a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene.
The 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule modified by the addition of a cap of guanine nucleotide.
Coding segments of eukaryotic DNA.
Specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
Mutation occuring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in improper grouping of nucleotides into codons.
Most common type of mutation, a base pair mutation in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
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