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174 terms

Medical Terminology: Blood, Lymphatic and Immune Systems

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homeostasis
metabolic equilibrium
hematology
study of blood
immunology
how our bodies fight off infection
hematic
pertaining to blood
lymphatic
returns fluid to cardiovascular system, detects, filters, and eliminates disease causing organisms.
hematopoiesis
the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
stem cell
unspecialized cell that can develop into a specialized cell under the right conditions
plasma
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
erythrocytes
red blood cells
leukocytes
white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow and are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
thrombocytes
platelets, blood-clotting cell fragments
bone marrow
a soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
erythropoietin
a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
hemosiderin
insoluble ferritin degradation product visible with Prussian blue stain
morphology
the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants
granulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
polymorphonucleocytes
neutrophil
eosinophils
white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates, white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates
neutrophils
A type of white blood cell that engulfs invading microbes and contributes to the nonspecific defenses of the body against disease.
phagocytes
cells that ingest antigens
basophils
Blood cells that enter damaged tissues and enhance the inflammation process and contain histamine and heparin
anticoagulant
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
agranulocytes
a group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei
monocytes
an agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage
macrophages
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
lymphocytes
Make antibodies to destroy foreign pathogens
antigens
foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
antibodies
Protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen.
coagulation
blood clotting;
the process of changing a liquid into a solid.
agglutinate
clump together
prothrombin
a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin
thrombin
an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot
fibrinogen
Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
fibrin
Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
hemostasis
hem/o=blood; -stasis=stopping, controlling
stoppage of bleeding; control of blood flow
blood clotting process
blood cells agglutinate by 1.activate clotting factors e.g factor X that produce prothrombin activator (PTA), 2. in the presence of calcium, PTA reacts with blood protein prothrombin to form thrombin. 3.Thrombin converts another blood protein, fibrinogen, to fibrin 4.hemostatis achieved
Plasma
1. water (90%) 2.inorganic substances (calcium, potassium, sodium) 3.organic substances (glucose, amino acids, fats, cholesterol, hormones) 4.waste products (urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatinine) 5.plasma proteins (serum albumin, serum globulin, and two clotting proteins: fibrinogen & prothrombin)
serum
ser/o = serum
watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma minus the clotting proteins
Plasma - (Prothrombin + fibrinogen)
Serology
branch of laboratory medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reactions in vitro
antigens
foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
have a nature of being perceived as foreign to the body
antibodies
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
nullify or neutralize the antigens
agglutinogens
Antigens formed on the surface of red blood cells, whose presence and structure are genetically determined.
can cause the blood to clump; antigens in the blood
agglutinin
antibodies found in blood
universal recipient
blood group AB; no natural blood group antibodies in serum
universal donor
type O blood
Rh factor
an antigen; the presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetal anemia, hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
HDN
hemolytic disease of the newborn; fetal anemia
lymph
the clear fluid that bathes each cell and transfers needed substances and wastes back and forth between the blood and the cells
lymph vessels
vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
lymph nodes
Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation
macrophages
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
lymph glands
Another name for lymph nodes; small organs composed of lymphatic tissue located along the route of the lymphatic vessels; remove impurities from the lymph and manufacture lymphocytes and antibodies.
thoracic duct
receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm, and lower extremities
spleen
Produces blood cells, destroys damaged blood cells, stores blood cells
thymus gland
An endocrine gland located in the upper mediastinum that assists the body with the immune function and the development of antibodies. As part of the immune response it secretes a hormone, thymosin, that changes lymphocytes to T cells.
tonsils
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; also called palatine
appendix
a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch
cytokines
chemicals released by the immune system that attack infections and communicate with the brain to elicit anti-illness behaviors
lymphokines
which are produced by the T cells, direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system
monokines
cytokines primarily produced by monocytes and macrophages
interleukins
proteins that stimulate the growth of B or T lymphocytes and activate specific components of the immune response
non specific immunity
defenses that stop the invasion of pathogens; requires no previous encounter with a pathogen
specific immunity
the third line of defense. the body's way of fighting off specific things that invade your body
acquired immunity
Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen
natural immunity
immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
pyrexia
fever
inflammation
a response of body tissues to injury or irritation
interferons
Antiviral proteins secreted by T cells
natural killer cells
A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells; an important component of innate immunity.
immunoglobulins
Bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response
humoral immunity
specific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluids
cell-mediated immunity
immunity against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells
active immunity
a form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens
passive immunity
short-term immunity caused when antibodies produced by other animals for a pathogen are injected into the body
dyscrasia
(dys=bad; crasia=mixture)
an abnormal or physiologically unbalanced state of the body
anemia
a deficiency of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and/or hematocrit
acute posthemorrhagic anemia
(hem/o=blood, -rrhagic=pertaining to bursting forth; -emia=blood condition)
RBC deficiency caused by blood loss
B12 Deficiency
insufficient blood levels of cobalamin (B12) which is essential for RBC maturation.
-result from inadequate dietary intake, or intrinsic factor, a substance in the GI system essential to vit B12 absorption
chronic blood loss
long-term internal bleeding
depletes iron stores, leading to decreased erthropoiesis
folate deficiency
anemia as a result of a lack of folate from dietary, drug-induced, congenital, or other causes
hypovolemia
(hypo-deficient; vol/o=volume; -emia=blood condition)
a blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
sideropenia
(sider/o=iron; -penia=deficiency)
reduced # of RBC coz of chronic blood loss, inadequate iron intake, etc;
iron deficiency anemia
pernicious anemia
(an- = no, not; -emia = blood condition)
lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body
aplastic anemia
(plast/o=formation; ic=pertaining to)
a condition where bone marrow does not suppression of bone marrow function leading to a reduction in RBC production; hypoplastic anemia
hemolytic anemia
(hem/o=blood; -lytic=petaining to destruction)
anemia resulting from destruction of erythrocytes (RBCs)
autoimmune acquired hemolytic anemia (auto-=self; immune=safety, protection)
anemia caused by the body's destruction of its own RBCs by serum antibodies
nonautoimmune acquired hemolytic anemia (-lytic = pertaining to destruction; -emia=blood condition)
anemia that may be drug induced or caused by an infectious disease in which RBCs are destroyed
sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder characterized by crescent-shaped RBCs and causes blockage to small diameter capillaries, thereby decreasing oxygen supply to the cells
thalassemia
(thalass/o=sea; -emia=blood condition)
Genetic; anemia due to decrease in the synthesis of hemoglobin, resulting in decreased production and increased destruction of RBCs
pancytopenia
(pan-=all; cyt/o=cell; -penia=deficiency)
deficiency of all blood cells caused by dysfunctional stem cells
hemophilia
(hem/o=blood; -philia=atraction condition)
inherited bleeding disorder that slows the blood clotting process
polycythemia vera
(poly-=many; vera=true)
chronic increase in the number of RBC's and the concentration of hemoglobin.
"Vera" signifies that this is not a sequela of another condition
purpura
(purpur/o=purple; -a=noun ending)
any of several blood disorder characterized by hemorrhage into the tissue;
causes subcutaneous bleeding
thrombocytopenia
(thromb/o=clot, clotting; -penia=deficiency)
deficiency of platelets that causes an inability of the blood to clot; most common cause of bleeding disorders
septicemia
(septic/o=infection; sept/o=septum, wall, or partition; -emia=blood condition)
systemic infection with pathtologic microbes in the blood as a result of an infection that has spread from elsewhere in the body; sepsis=infection
septic shock
inadequate blood flow to the body caused by an overwhelming infection and resultant low blood pressure. Organs fail and death may occur.
leukocytosis
(leuk/o=white blood cell; -cytosis=abnormal increase in cells)
abnormal increase of white blood cells
9eosinophilia, basophilia, neutrophilia, lymhocytosis or monocytosis)
leukopenia
an abnormal lowering of the white blood; neutropenia, eosinopenia, monocytopenia, lymphocytopenia. Also called leukocytopenia
neutropenia
leukopenia in which the decrease is primarily in number of neutrophils (the chief phagocytic leukocyte)
edema
swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in the interstitial spaces of tissue
hypersplenism
(hyper-=excessive; splen/o=spleen; -ism=condition)
increase function of the spleen, resulting in hemolysis
lymphadenitis
(lymphaden/o=lymph gland; -itis=inflammation)
Infection of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy
(lympahden/o=lymph gland; -pathy=disease process)
chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
lynphangitis
(lymphangi/o=blood vessel)
inflammation of lymph vessels
lymphedema
(-edema = swelling)
swelling (usually in the legs) caused by lymph accumulating in the tissues
lymphocytopenia
(-penia=deficiency)
an abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
lymphocytosis
(-cytosis=abnormal increase of cells)
an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
mononucleosis
(nucle/o=nucleus; -osis=abnormal condition)
a condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
acquired immunodeficiency syndrom (AIDS)
caused by human immunodeficiency virus HIV which attacks the helper T cells, and diminished the immune response
allergy
(allo-=other, different; erg/o=work; -y=condition)
overly strong reaction of the immune system to a foreign substance (allergen)
anaphylaxis
(ana-=without; -phylaxis=protection)
extreme from of allergic response in which the patient suffers severely decreased blood pressure and constriction of the airways)
delayed allergy
immune system hypersensitivity caused by activated T cells thar espond to an exposure of the skin to a chemical irritant up to 2 days later; like poison ivy; the resulting rash is called contact dermatitis
immediate allergy
an allergic reaction that becomes apparent in a sensitized person only minutes after contact
autoimmune disease
(auto-=self; immun/o = safety, protection)
condition in which a person's T cells attack his/her own cells, causing extensive tissue damage and organ dysfunction. e.g myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis.
thymoma
(thym/o=thymus gland; -oma=tumor)
noncancerous tumor of epithelia origin that is often associated with myasthenia gravis
acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of immature lymphocytes -like cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and blood; most common for those under 19 years old; acute lymphoblastic leukemia
acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
(myel/o=bone marrow; -genous=pertaining to orginating from)
rapidly progressive leukemia, develops from immature bone marrow stem cells
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
slowly progressing in which immature lymphocytes proliferate (mostly middle age people)
chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
slowly progressing in which immature bone marrow cells proliferate (mostly middle age or older adults)
Hodgkin lymphoma
distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells
multiple myeloma
(myel/o=bone marrow; -oma=tumor)
myeloma that develops in several places at the same time; plasma cell dyscrasia or myelomatosis, rare malignancy of the plasma cells is formed from B lymphocytes
non-Hodgkin lymphoma
the term used to describe all other lymphomas other than Hodgkin's; sith most common type of cancer in US
malignant thymoma
rare cancer of the thymus gland, is particularly invasive and unlike its benign form, is not associated with autoimmune disorders; thymic carcinoma
lymphadenography (lymphaden/o=lymph gland)
(-graphy=process of recording)
radiographic examination of lymph nodes after injection of a radiopaque substance; lymphography
lymphangiography
(lymphangi/o=lymph vessel)
(-graphy = process of recording)
radiogrpahic visualization of a part of the lymphatic system after injection with a radiopaque substance
splenic arteriography
(splen/o=spleen; arteri/o=artery)
radiographic visualization of the spleen with the use of a contrast medium
ELISA
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; tests to detect the presence of HIV types 1 and 2
Western Blot
blood test used to check for antibodies for HIV and to confirm an ELISA test
basic metabolic panel BMP
group of blood tests to meausre calcium, glucose, electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and choloride, creatinine,a nd blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
complete blood cell count CBC
twelve tests, including RBC, WBC, Hb, Hct/PCV (hemotrocrit/packed-cell volume) and diff (WBC differential)
comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)
set of 14 blood tests that add protein and liver function test to the BMP, glucose is also measured with a different method than in the basic panel
Coombs antiglobulin test
(anti-=against; -globulin=protein substance)
blood test to diagnose hemolytic disease of the newborn, acquired hemolytic anemia, or a transfusion reaction
diff count (differential)
measure of the numbers of the different types of WBCs
erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR
measurement of time for mature RBCs to settle out of a blood sample after an anticoagulant is added, An increased ESR indicates inflammation
Hct
hematocrit
PCV
Packed cell volume (hematocrit)
Hgb
hemoglobin
Hb
hemoglobin
MCH
mean corpuscular hemoglobin
MCHC
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
Monospot
test for infectious mononucleosis
PTT
partial thromboplastin time
PT
prothrombin time
Schilling Test
determine whether the problem with low blood B12 is related to intrinsic factor insufficiency by administering tracer-labeled vit B12 and measure urinary excretion overy various times
WBC
white blood cell
apheresis
(-apheresis=removal)
a procedure in which blood is drawn and separated into its components by dialysis
bone marrow transplant BMT
transplantation of bone marrow to stimulate production of normal blood cells
autologous bone marrow transplant
(log/o=study; -ous=pertaining to)
harvesting of patient's own healthy bone marrow before treatment for reintroduction later; originating within an individual
homologous bone marrow transplant
transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a donor to a recipient to stimulate formation of new blood cells
lymphadenectomy
removal of a lymph node
splenectomy
surgical removal of the spleen
autologous transfusion
(trans-=across; -fusion=pouring)
process in which the donors own blood is removed and stored in anticipation of a future need
autotransfusion
process in which the done is transfused with his/her own blood, after anticoagulation adn filtration, from an active bleeding site in cases of major surgery or trauma
hemostasis
(hem/o=blood; -stasis=stopping, controlling)
the control of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means
-poiesis
formation
adenoidectomy
(adenoid.o=adenoid; -ectomy=removal)
excision of the adenoids; pharyngeal tonsils
hematocrit (Hct), packed-cell volume (PCV) (hemat/o=blood; -crit=separate)
measure of the percentage of RBCs in the blood
hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb)
(hem/o=blood; -globin=protein substance)
measure of iron-containing pigment of RBCs that carries oxygen to tissues
mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
test to measure the average weight of hemoglobin per RBC. Useful in diagnosing anemia.
monospot
test for infectious mononucleosis
partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
test of blood plasma to detect coagulation defects of the intrinsic system, used to detect hemophilias
prothrombin time (PT)
(pro-=before; -thrombin=clotting substance)
test that measures the amount of time taken for clot formation.
Schilling test
nuclear medicine test used to diagnose B12 deficiency and pernicious anemia
biopsy (bx) of lymphatic structures
(bi/o=life; -opsy=process of viewing; lymphat/o=lymph; -ic=pertaining to)
removal of the lymph nodes or lymphoid tissue as a means to diagnosis and treatment
colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)
stimulate the production of white blood cells in the bone marrow
hematinics
increase the number of erythrocytes and/or hemoglobin concentration in the erythrocytes usually to treat iron-deficiency anemia
antineoplastics
treat cancer by preventing growth or promoting destruction of neoplastic (tumor) cells
antiretrovirals
minimize the replication of HIV and its progression into AIDS
corticosteroids
steroids that suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation
cytotoxic agents
damage or destroy cells to treat cancer, often act as immunosuppressants or antineoplastics
vaccines
modified disease-casing microbial components administered to induce immunity or reduce the pathologic effects of a disease
vaccination
an injection or oral solution derived from dead or weakend (attenuated) virus
hemostatics
help stop the flow of blood