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metabolic equilibrium


study of blood


how our bodies fight off infection


pertaining to blood


returns fluid to cardiovascular system, detects, filters, and eliminates disease causing organisms.


the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)

stem cell

unspecialized cell that can develop into a specialized cell under the right conditions


colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended


red blood cells


white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow and are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system


platelets, blood-clotting cell fragments

bone marrow

a soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells


a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells


insoluble ferritin degradation product visible with Prussian blue stain


the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants


neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils




white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates, white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates


A type of white blood cell that engulfs invading microbes and contributes to the nonspecific defenses of the body against disease.


cells that ingest antigens


Blood cells that enter damaged tissues and enhance the inflammation process and contain histamine and heparin


a drug that prevents clotting of the blood


a group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei


an agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage


Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.


Make antibodies to destroy foreign pathogens


foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.


Protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen.


blood clotting;
the process of changing a liquid into a solid.


clump together


a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin


an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot


Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process


Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot

hem/o=blood; -stasis=stopping, controlling

stoppage of bleeding; control of blood flow

blood clotting process

blood cells agglutinate by 1.activate clotting factors e.g factor X that produce prothrombin activator (PTA), 2. in the presence of calcium, PTA reacts with blood protein prothrombin to form thrombin. 3.Thrombin converts another blood protein, fibrinogen, to fibrin 4.hemostatis achieved


1. water (90%) 2.inorganic substances (calcium, potassium, sodium) substances (glucose, amino acids, fats, cholesterol, hormones) 4.waste products (urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatinine) 5.plasma proteins (serum albumin, serum globulin, and two clotting proteins: fibrinogen & prothrombin)

ser/o = serum

watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma minus the clotting proteins
Plasma - (Prothrombin + fibrinogen)


branch of laboratory medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reactions in vitro


foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
have a nature of being perceived as foreign to the body


Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
nullify or neutralize the antigens


Antigens formed on the surface of red blood cells, whose presence and structure are genetically determined.
can cause the blood to clump; antigens in the blood


antibodies found in blood

universal recipient

blood group AB; no natural blood group antibodies in serum

universal donor

type O blood

Rh factor

an antigen; the presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetal anemia, hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)


hemolytic disease of the newborn; fetal anemia


the clear fluid that bathes each cell and transfers needed substances and wastes back and forth between the blood and the cells

lymph vessels

vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes

lymph nodes

Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation


Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.

lymph glands

Another name for lymph nodes; small organs composed of lymphatic tissue located along the route of the lymphatic vessels; remove impurities from the lymph and manufacture lymphocytes and antibodies.

thoracic duct

receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm, and lower extremities


Produces blood cells, destroys damaged blood cells, stores blood cells

thymus gland

An endocrine gland located in the upper mediastinum that assists the body with the immune function and the development of antibodies. As part of the immune response it secretes a hormone, thymosin, that changes lymphocytes to T cells.


oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; also called palatine


a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch


chemicals released by the immune system that attack infections and communicate with the brain to elicit anti-illness behaviors


which are produced by the T cells, direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system


cytokines primarily produced by monocytes and macrophages


proteins that stimulate the growth of B or T lymphocytes and activate specific components of the immune response

non specific immunity

defenses that stop the invasion of pathogens; requires no previous encounter with a pathogen

specific immunity

the third line of defense. the body's way of fighting off specific things that invade your body

acquired immunity

Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen

natural immunity

immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup


process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell




a response of body tissues to injury or irritation


Antiviral proteins secreted by T cells

natural killer cells

A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells; an important component of innate immunity.


Bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response

humoral immunity

specific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluids

cell-mediated immunity

immunity against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells

active immunity

a form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens

passive immunity

short-term immunity caused when antibodies produced by other animals for a pathogen are injected into the body

(dys=bad; crasia=mixture)

an abnormal or physiologically unbalanced state of the body


a deficiency of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and/or hematocrit

acute posthemorrhagic anemia
(hem/o=blood, -rrhagic=pertaining to bursting forth; -emia=blood condition)

RBC deficiency caused by blood loss

B12 Deficiency

insufficient blood levels of cobalamin (B12) which is essential for RBC maturation.
-result from inadequate dietary intake, or intrinsic factor, a substance in the GI system essential to vit B12 absorption

chronic blood loss

long-term internal bleeding
depletes iron stores, leading to decreased erthropoiesis

folate deficiency

anemia as a result of a lack of folate from dietary, drug-induced, congenital, or other causes

(hypo-deficient; vol/o=volume; -emia=blood condition)

a blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood

(sider/o=iron; -penia=deficiency)

reduced # of RBC coz of chronic blood loss, inadequate iron intake, etc;
iron deficiency anemia

pernicious anemia
(an- = no, not; -emia = blood condition)

lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body

aplastic anemia
(plast/o=formation; ic=pertaining to)

a condition where bone marrow does not suppression of bone marrow function leading to a reduction in RBC production; hypoplastic anemia

hemolytic anemia
(hem/o=blood; -lytic=petaining to destruction)

anemia resulting from destruction of erythrocytes (RBCs)

autoimmune acquired hemolytic anemia (auto-=self; immune=safety, protection)

anemia caused by the body's destruction of its own RBCs by serum antibodies

nonautoimmune acquired hemolytic anemia (-lytic = pertaining to destruction; -emia=blood condition)

anemia that may be drug induced or caused by an infectious disease in which RBCs are destroyed

sickle cell anemia

a genetic disorder characterized by crescent-shaped RBCs and causes blockage to small diameter capillaries, thereby decreasing oxygen supply to the cells

(thalass/o=sea; -emia=blood condition)

Genetic; anemia due to decrease in the synthesis of hemoglobin, resulting in decreased production and increased destruction of RBCs

(pan-=all; cyt/o=cell; -penia=deficiency)

deficiency of all blood cells caused by dysfunctional stem cells

(hem/o=blood; -philia=atraction condition)

inherited bleeding disorder that slows the blood clotting process

polycythemia vera
(poly-=many; vera=true)

chronic increase in the number of RBC's and the concentration of hemoglobin.
"Vera" signifies that this is not a sequela of another condition

(purpur/o=purple; -a=noun ending)

any of several blood disorder characterized by hemorrhage into the tissue;
causes subcutaneous bleeding

(thromb/o=clot, clotting; -penia=deficiency)

deficiency of platelets that causes an inability of the blood to clot; most common cause of bleeding disorders

(septic/o=infection; sept/o=septum, wall, or partition; -emia=blood condition)

systemic infection with pathtologic microbes in the blood as a result of an infection that has spread from elsewhere in the body; sepsis=infection

septic shock

inadequate blood flow to the body caused by an overwhelming infection and resultant low blood pressure. Organs fail and death may occur.

(leuk/o=white blood cell; -cytosis=abnormal increase in cells)

abnormal increase of white blood cells
9eosinophilia, basophilia, neutrophilia, lymhocytosis or monocytosis)


an abnormal lowering of the white blood; neutropenia, eosinopenia, monocytopenia, lymphocytopenia. Also called leukocytopenia


leukopenia in which the decrease is primarily in number of neutrophils (the chief phagocytic leukocyte)


swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in the interstitial spaces of tissue

(hyper-=excessive; splen/o=spleen; -ism=condition)

increase function of the spleen, resulting in hemolysis

(lymphaden/o=lymph gland; -itis=inflammation)

Infection of the lymph nodes

(lympahden/o=lymph gland; -pathy=disease process)

chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)

(lymphangi/o=blood vessel)

inflammation of lymph vessels

(-edema = swelling)

swelling (usually in the legs) caused by lymph accumulating in the tissues


an abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood

(-cytosis=abnormal increase of cells)

an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood

(nucle/o=nucleus; -osis=abnormal condition)

a condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)

acquired immunodeficiency syndrom (AIDS)

caused by human immunodeficiency virus HIV which attacks the helper T cells, and diminished the immune response

(allo-=other, different; erg/o=work; -y=condition)

overly strong reaction of the immune system to a foreign substance (allergen)

(ana-=without; -phylaxis=protection)

extreme from of allergic response in which the patient suffers severely decreased blood pressure and constriction of the airways)

delayed allergy

immune system hypersensitivity caused by activated T cells thar espond to an exposure of the skin to a chemical irritant up to 2 days later; like poison ivy; the resulting rash is called contact dermatitis

immediate allergy

an allergic reaction that becomes apparent in a sensitized person only minutes after contact

autoimmune disease
(auto-=self; immun/o = safety, protection)

condition in which a person's T cells attack his/her own cells, causing extensive tissue damage and organ dysfunction. e.g myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis.

(thym/o=thymus gland; -oma=tumor)

noncancerous tumor of epithelia origin that is often associated with myasthenia gravis

acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of immature lymphocytes -like cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and blood; most common for those under 19 years old; acute lymphoblastic leukemia

acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
(myel/o=bone marrow; -genous=pertaining to orginating from)

rapidly progressive leukemia, develops from immature bone marrow stem cells

chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

slowly progressing in which immature lymphocytes proliferate (mostly middle age people)

chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

slowly progressing in which immature bone marrow cells proliferate (mostly middle age or older adults)

Hodgkin lymphoma

distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells

multiple myeloma
(myel/o=bone marrow; -oma=tumor)

myeloma that develops in several places at the same time; plasma cell dyscrasia or myelomatosis, rare malignancy of the plasma cells is formed from B lymphocytes

non-Hodgkin lymphoma

the term used to describe all other lymphomas other than Hodgkin's; sith most common type of cancer in US

malignant thymoma

rare cancer of the thymus gland, is particularly invasive and unlike its benign form, is not associated with autoimmune disorders; thymic carcinoma

lymphadenography (lymphaden/o=lymph gland)
(-graphy=process of recording)

radiographic examination of lymph nodes after injection of a radiopaque substance; lymphography

(lymphangi/o=lymph vessel)
(-graphy = process of recording)

radiogrpahic visualization of a part of the lymphatic system after injection with a radiopaque substance

splenic arteriography
(splen/o=spleen; arteri/o=artery)

radiographic visualization of the spleen with the use of a contrast medium


enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; tests to detect the presence of HIV types 1 and 2

Western Blot

blood test used to check for antibodies for HIV and to confirm an ELISA test

basic metabolic panel BMP

group of blood tests to meausre calcium, glucose, electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and choloride, creatinine,a nd blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

complete blood cell count CBC

twelve tests, including RBC, WBC, Hb, Hct/PCV (hemotrocrit/packed-cell volume) and diff (WBC differential)

comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)

set of 14 blood tests that add protein and liver function test to the BMP, glucose is also measured with a different method than in the basic panel

Coombs antiglobulin test
(anti-=against; -globulin=protein substance)

blood test to diagnose hemolytic disease of the newborn, acquired hemolytic anemia, or a transfusion reaction

diff count (differential)

measure of the numbers of the different types of WBCs

erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR

measurement of time for mature RBCs to settle out of a blood sample after an anticoagulant is added, An increased ESR indicates inflammation




Packed cell volume (hematocrit)






mean corpuscular hemoglobin


mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration


test for infectious mononucleosis


partial thromboplastin time


prothrombin time

Schilling Test

determine whether the problem with low blood B12 is related to intrinsic factor insufficiency by administering tracer-labeled vit B12 and measure urinary excretion overy various times


white blood cell


a procedure in which blood is drawn and separated into its components by dialysis

bone marrow transplant BMT

transplantation of bone marrow to stimulate production of normal blood cells

autologous bone marrow transplant
(log/o=study; -ous=pertaining to)

harvesting of patient's own healthy bone marrow before treatment for reintroduction later; originating within an individual

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