Degree of contact (propinquity) (Primary vs Secondary) Formality Homophily Attractiveness Density Tie-Strength (cohesiveness)
Knowledgeable about products Heavy users of mass media Buy new products when introduced Perceived as credible
Marketing implications of opinion leaders
Target Use in marketing communications Refer consumers
Types of Influencers
Connectors Mavens Salesmen
Know people across social, cultural, professional and economic circles
Information specialists (broker) we rely on to connect us with new information
Charismatic people with strong negotiation skills (aka "the persuaders"
Importance of Reference Groups
Informational Utilitarian Value-expressive
Degree of Influence of Reference Groups
Degree to which the product or brand is a necessity of luxury. Degree to which the product or brand is conspicuous or known by other people
Marketing implications of Reference Groups
Peer group influence as a major asset of firms that sell in-home to groups
Describing similarities between previous consumers and potential ones
Using salespersons as reference groups
Soliciting experts to aid in the direct sale of products
Do what someone asks us to do
Do the opposite of what someone asks us to do Boomerang effect
Selectively gathering evidence to secure your point
Your behaviors are similar to the those of other people in your group
Mistaken belief that infrequent events are interrelated
Convince yourself to like something after you purchase even if you don't so you don't have to pay for it again / redo it.
Tendency to disregard facts of something happening
status quo bias
Even when everything is equal, ads etc with negative nature have more impact on consumers
Presumption that preferences they have now won't change in the future
current moment bias
Different decisions will be made if its for the future vs the present
Rely heavily on one aspect of information, usually the first info given, when making decision
Status Quo Bias
Preference for the current state of affairs (change from baseline is considered a loss)
Shared meaning by most people in a shared group
Cultural Meanings Include
Common affective reactions Typical cognitions Characteristic patterns of behavior
Beliefs, attitudes, goals, & values held by most people in a society. Meaning of characteristic behaviors, customs, & norms most people follow. Meaning of significant aspects of the social and physical environment.
Levels of Cultural meanings
Macro Subcultures Social classes Reference groups Family influences
Adapting to different subcultural meanings
Four Stages of Acclturation
Honeymoon Rejection Tolerance Integration
Geography Age Ethnicity Gender Income Social Class
Answers questions specific to a given product, market, etc.
Answers questions independent of product specifics
Examples of Basic Research
What affects your perception of taste? What makes a spokesperson credible? How can attitudes be changed? How do peer groups exert influence?
Where is applied research conducted
In-house External research firm Watchdog agencies
Where is basic research conducted
Universities Government agencies "Think-Tanks"
Advantages of Secondary Data
Time savings, Low costs
Disadvantages of secondary data
May be out of date Definitions or categories might not be what you're looking for Might not be specific enough for your project
Types of Qualitative Primary Research
Introspection Observation Depth Interviews Focus Groups
Watching how people interact with some aspect of their environment (e.g., your product).
Conversation between equals rather than Q&A
A group gathers, led by a trained moderator, to discuss your product (or your ad, etc.)
Types of Quantitative Primary research
Surveys Panels Experiments (Field or Lab)
Each person responds to a pre-set list of questions.
Structure of Survey
Objective Introduction General Questions Key Questions Open-ended questions Segment related questions
Words of Caution with Primary Research
Introspection cannot always tell us "why." Memory is error-prone.
One variable causes another
Relationship between two variables. The degree to which changes in one variable are associated with changes in another.
The researcher observes and measures the IV and looks for a relationship with the DV. Changes in the independent variable (IV) are not under the researcher's control
Looks at effect of IV on DV. Help you isolate the cause of a change in behavior.
Requirements of Experiments
The researcher controls (or "manipulates") the independent variable. The researcher "randomly assigns" participants to different levels or versions of the IV.
things not controlled by researcher that make groups differ and therefore might cause differences in how they act.
Advantages of Experimentation
Only way to establish the cause of a change in behavior. Answers basic and applied questions. Can be done on a small scale (in the lab) or on a larger scale (in the field).
Disadvantages of Experimentation
Sometimes experimentation (namely, random assignment) isn't possible. Ex: Can't assign people to ages, genders, etc. Ex: Can't assign people to smoke or not.
Ethics in Research
Need to protect participants Obtain informed consent May pose a dilemma - how much to tell? Protect privacy
"Mere-measurement" effect: Innocuous questions may themselves shape behavior!
Things to watch out for with Research
The temptation to resist search results Must be critical of search results as well