AP Psychology Chapter 18 Vocab
Terms in this set (35)
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
the theory that we tend to to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
"us"- people with whom one shares a common identity.
"them"- those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
the tendency to favor one's own group.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.