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200 terms

mid-term

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As a therapist, Dr. Mark helps clients recognize their own inner potential to reach personal goals. Most likely, Dr. Mark is what type of therapist?
humanistic
correctly lists the goals of psychology
describe,predict,explain,control/change
the following is a causal hypothesis
the amount of alcohol consumed will influence the ability to walk a straight line
LaDonna is a researcher who studies the behavior of rats. Because she studies rats and not humans, LaDonna
still has to get institutional review board approval and still has to follow APA ethical guidlines
the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method
define the issue, form a hypothesis, choose a research stragety, conduct a study, analyse the data
the following is true regarding the use of deception in psychological research
Deception is allowable as long as it is justifiably necessary and participants are debriefed appropriately
Sigmund Freud's ideas led to his formulation of
psychoanalytic theory
A psychologist holding a biological view would most likely have a focus on
the brain
Your psychology teacher believes that for psychology to be truly scientific, it must focus on observable and measurable actions. Your teacher is most likely a
behaviorist
You are advising a friend on her choice of career. She says that she wants to be a psychologist. Knowing this, you should advise your friend that the highest level of degree that she will likely need to earn is a/an
doctorate
the following would be of most interest to an industrial/organizational psychologist
methods of increasing employee satisfaction
Darwin's finches were an application of William James' idea of
functionalism
the following psychologists most likely has a Psy.D. degree
clinical psychologist
Psychologists attempt to understand behavior and mental processes by
using the scientific method
The study of how humans attain happiness is known as
positive psychology
Early scientific psychology was influenced by
philosophy,medicine,physiology
Evolutionary psychology shares a similarity with functionalism in that they both
focus on the ability of organisms to adapt to their environment
Psychology became a distinct scientific field of study when
Wihelm Wundt established a laboratory to study the mind in the late 1800
Most psychologists take an eclectic approach in terms of the perspectives of psychology they use to explain people. This means that they
intergrate several perspectives
The sociocultural perspective in psychology emphasizes the
the role of society and culture in determinng behavior
Naturalistic observations are predominantly used to achieve the goals of
description and prediction
the following is true regarding the use of animals in psychological research
any animal used in research must be treated humanely and accord with all the laws and regulations
this statement would most likely have been made by William James
rather than studying the elements of consciousness, psychology should study the function consciousness serves
the organization establishes the ethical guidelines for research conducted by psychologists
American Psychological Association
Psychology is defined as the
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
A hypothesis is
an educated guess about the anticpated outcome of a study
Similar to Wilhelm Wundt, if you were to use a self-observation technique to analyze the basic elements of your thought processes, you would most likely be using a method called
introspection
the gap between adjacent neurons is called
synapse
you are unable to remember any of the events or episodes of your life, it may be because of damage to your
hippocampus
Parkinson's disease is to
small amounts of dopamine
schizophrenia is to
large amounts of dopamine
The chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is
GABA
the chief excitatory neurotransmitter is
glutamate
Neurotransmitters are most analogous to
mail carriers delivering mail
The branch of the nervous system that includes neurons that run between the brain and the muscles and between the brain and the internal organs is the
peripheral nervous system
to name and function of all the neurotransmitters that researchers have identified, you would have to learn about how many neurotransmitters
more than 100
If you take a drug that causes neurons in your brain to stop firing, the drug is said to have waht effects
inhibitory
When you reach out and accidentally touch a hot stove, information is sent through what neurons to tell your central nervous system that it is hot.
sensory
The two main divisions of the nervous system are
peripheral, central
The symptoms of depression that may follow heavy use of MDMA (ecstasy) may result from depleted levels of
serotonin
Alzheimer's patients are often prescribed medications that are designed to improve awareness and memory. The neurotransmitter most likely affected by these drugs is
acetylcholine
An action potential is a
neural impulse
speeds up neural signal
myelin
Each neuron in the brain can potentially synapse with up to how many other neurons
10,000
recycling and returning of neurotransmitters to the presynaptic neuron
reuptake
the left hemisphere seems to be more active during
linguistic
the right hemisphere seems to be more active during
spatial
the dominant perspective on the nature-nurture debate is interactionism, which is the view that
depending upon the specific trait or behavior, both nature and nurture can be important through their interaction with each other.
The two major communication systems within the body are
nervous and endocrine
Michael Gazzaniga's split-brain patients
were unable to name objects they saw in their left visual field
the following is the most likely source of pleasure we get from eating and sexual activity
dopamine
allows brain researchers the best opportunity to view the activity of a single cell or organ
fMRI scan
Receptor sites for communication exist on
postsynaptic neuron
involves myelin loss, causing neural impulses to travel around in the brain without making it to their destinations
MS
If Clark had no ions in his nervous system
he would not be able to create any action potentials
subset of the autonomic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system activates a
stress response
the parasympathetic nervous system activates a
calming response
Based on the experience of Phineas Gage, who accidentally had a metal rod shot through part of his head, it appears that the
the frontal lobe regulates judgemnet and emotional response
ability to experience happiness and pleasure is probably most dependent upon which brain structure
the limbic system
One of the reasons that you may not want to spend money to attend a seminar on becoming more of a right-brain thinker is that recent research shows that
both sides work together in most intellectual and behavioral tasks
If you are currently taking a drug that affects your behavior, most likely it is affecting the
activity occuring within the synapse
the correct sequence for secretion of hormones
hypothalamus, pituitary gland, endocrine glands, organs of the body
In the nervous system information is passed through the body's
neurons
in the endocrine system information is passed through the body's
bloodstream
How do neurotransmitters "communicate" with postsynaptic neurons
like "A key fitting into a lock" they bind with corresponding receptor sites on the dendrites of the neuron.
people suffering from autism or Asperger syndrome experience abnormal activity in the
amygdala
when you want to make an impressive dance move, information is sent through your
motor neurons
Once an action potential reaches the end of the axon, how does the information usually get to the next neuron?
Vesicles at the end of the axon release neurotransmitters that float across the synaptic cleft to the next neuron
The structure in the brain that connects the endocrine system and the nervous system is the
hypothalamus
Prozac inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin. When you take Prozac, the effect of this drug will be to
increase the time serotonin in the synapse of the brain
Using your previous experiences to perceive something is
top-down processing
elying only upon the immediate stimulus properties to perceive something is
bottom-up processing
The trichromatic theory states that
three different types of cones detect three different primary colors of light
Westerners tend to focus on
details of objects
Asians tend to focus on
contextual relationships
the conversion of enviromental stimuli into a form that the nervous system can process
transduciton
An individual suffering from red-green colorblindness, is most likely missing
either red or green cones
transduciton for vision occurs in the
rods ans cones
experiences dont greatly influence the processes involved in
sensation
experiences greatly influence the processes involved in
perception
Signal detection research would be most useful for
air traffic controllers
When your attention is focused upon the items on your desk rather than the desk itself, you are making a distinction that relies on the Gestalt principle of
figure-ground
Beata was born without cone cells in her retina. What effect will this most likely have on her vision
she will be colorblind
If a person could hear colors, or see odors, the person might have a rare condition called
synthesthesia
more directly associated with perception than sensation
interpretation
While driving at night, you are most likely to have trouble perceiving
colors
If your retina contained only rods, you would be unable to
see color
When photopigments of the eye split apart
transduction is occuring
Military personnel wearing camouflage clothing in order to blend into the surrounding environment are hoping that this strategy will cause the enemy to be fooled by the principle called
good continuation
The opponent-process theory states that
cells in the visual system are senstiive to two colors of light, but not at the same time
ability to view the environment in three dimensions, rather than two, is primarily a
perception process
Eyewitnesses to a crime often misidentify the criminal because they fill in gaps in their memory with things they expected to see
an example of top-down processing
Perception is defined as the
the interpretation of sensory information
Psychophysicists study
how the mind interprets basic sensory stimuli
In sensation, environmental energy is converted into action portentials
true
the correct sequence of structures involved in vision
cornea, lens, retina
Top-down processing can lead to perceptual errors because
our expectations can strongly influence what we preceive
Grouping people together on the basis of an observable characteristic such as height would exemplify the Gestalt principle of
similarity
helps psychologists predict the change in a stimulus that would be needed to produce a noticeable difference
webers law
If your psychology teacher conducts research on specific neurons in the occipital lobe to determine when they fire in response to specific visual stimuli, he is most likely a/an
feature detection theorist
Certain animals may be able to see you in the dark better than you can see them because
they can see a wider range of the electromagnetic spectrum than you.
Which of the following psychologists would most likely agree with the statement, "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts?"
Gestalt psychologist
rods are to
periphery of retina
cones are to
center of retina
Individuals with narcolepsy
experience sudden episodes of REM sleep during alert times of the day
The activation-synthesis theory of dreaming suggests that
dreams represent the brains attempt to create meaning from randon neural impulses
Circadian rhythms are
cahnges in the bodily processes that occur on a predictable basis
Shemar appears to awaken in fear. His eyes are open, but he is actually in deep sleep. Shemar does not remember the incident in the morning. Shemar is experiencing
night terrors
14-year old Mohammed often urinates in his bed while he is in stage III or IV sleep. Mohammed has a sleep disorder called
enuresis
From which stage of sleep is it most difficult to be awakened?
stage IV
As you relax in preparation to sleep (but before you actually fall sleep), your brain waves will typically change from
beta to alpha
true regarding the effects of hypnosis
hypnosis has been used quite successfully in pain relief
When a person is sleepwalking you can be fairly confident that he/she is not
acting out dreams
Based on what you know about hypnosis and memory you should be
skeptical of both recoverd memories and attempts at age regression while hypnotized
most common reported sleep disorder is
insomnia
The three most widely used psychoactive drugs by people over the age of 12 in the United States are
alcohol, nicotine, caffeine
Joseph suffers from REM behavior disorder. This means that
his body is not experiencing teh muscle paralysis that normally accompanies REM sleep
Megan has a 4-month-old infant son and is anxious that he might die from SIDS. What can Megan do to reduce her sons risk?
put her son to sleep on his back
Hypnosis is described as a
method used to create a heightened state of suggestability
Should you awaken your friend who is spending the night and is sleepwalking?
yes, sleep walkers can injure themselves if they are not awakened
Omars wife notices that when Omar sleeps, he repeatedly stops breathing until he emits a large snore that wakes him up. Omar is experiencing
sleep apnea
alcohol is to
depressent
caffeine is to
stimulant
Psychoactive drugs can affect nervous system activity by
blocking, speeding up, mimicking
You are having trouble getting to and staying asleep at night and are wondering if you should try sleeping pills. What would the experts tell you?
they can disrupt your REM sleep, so they should be avoided
If Lebron, who is asleep and dreaming, and Kobe, who is awake, were both given brain scans, what would you expect their scans to look like?
both would be similar with large amounts of activity
Alcohol would not be a good remedy for insomnia, because it
reduces the time spent in REM sleep
nightmares
occur in REM sleep
night terrors
occur in deep sleep
If you miss a night of sleep, the next time you sleep you are likely to experience
REM rebound
both elevate dopamine levels
nicotine and cocaine
a 3-15 burst of sleep occuring in the midst of a wakeful activity
microsleep
dissociation theory
hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness
response set theory
hynosis is not an altered state
The thoughts, feelings, and aroused states of which we are aware
consciousness
"latent content" is most closely associated with
Freudian theory
best summarizes the current views in psychology on the meaning of dreams
Scientist dont really know wether or not dreams generally have nay special meaning
theory proposes that dreaming is a way to rehearse responses to events that endanger our surviva
threat stimulation theory
Marks: 1 When you dream about a monster chasing you and you realize later that the monster symbolizes the research paper that you have due in one of your classes, this interpretation of the dream is called the
latent content
REM sleep is relativley
active
NON-REM is relativley
relaxed
When you wake up and recall dreaming about taking a test in your psychology class, you are recalling the.
manifest content
REM sleep is experienced by
all mammals
As compared to children, when teenagers want to stay up later in the evening and sleep longer in the morning, the cause may be due to
changes in melatonin secretion
Banduras four-step process in his social learning theory
attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
If a teacher wants to change a pattern of student studying that typically increases on the days prior to a test and drops to almost no studying at all in the days following a test, she should try a variable interval schedule such as a system that uses
random, unannounced tests
classical condittioning is to
association to stimuli
instrumental conditioning is to
consequences of behavior
According to the views of B.F. Skinner, if a behavior is commonly exhibited, you can be assured that it
has been reinforced
Spontaneous recovery
an extinguished condtitioned response exhibits a temporary increase
teh orienting reflex
when we are presented with new stimuli that repeats itself
after a while of being exposed to new stimuli we exhihbit
habituation
a secondary reinforcer
money
classical conditioning is generally strongest when the neutral stimuli is presented when and within a few what?
before, seconds
What do Albert Bandura, Wolfgang Kohler, and Edward Tolman all have in common
have conducted research demonstrating teh importance to cognition in learning
Tolmans research showing that rats can learn a maze even when they are not rewarded
suggest that cognitive process can influence learning
The Japanese view of reinforcement highlights the concept that
although instrumental conditioning principal are universal, what individuals define as reinforcemnet or punishment varies by culture.
The neutral stimulus in Pavlovs original studies was
the buzzer
"Little Albert" had been exposed to Mary Cover Joness technique of counterconditioning, he may have been presented with a white rat when he
was drinking his bottle
negative reinforcement leads to
an increase in behavior
Frank bought his daughter a computerized toy that is teaching her to read. As she reads the text of a book, the computer asks her questions, which she answers by pointing to the answers with a specialized stylus. If she gets the answers correct, the computer applauds. If she gets the answer wrong, the computer beeps. This toy is analogous to
a Skinner box
When a stimulus that originally did not cause a particular response now begins to cause that response, what has occurred?
Classical conditioning
B.F. Skinner and Albert Bandura would have disagreed about the importance of what in affecting behavior.
thinking
Punishing a childs misbehavior only occasionally when it occurs may mean that the behavior is actually being reinforced on a partial schedule because the child is able to "get away" with doing the behavior some of the time. This program of punishment would then have the result of making the
misbehvior more resistant to extinction
social leaning invovles
observing the behaviors of others and learning from them.
occurs when something unpleasent is added to an organisms environment
positive punishment
When a conditioned stimulus no longer produces a conditioned response, what has occurred?
extinction
When animal trainers use operant conditioning techniques to slowly condition a new behavior by reinforcing successive approximations of the new desired behavior, the specific name for this is
shaping
At first, Sally thought it was funny when her 5-year-old used bad language, and she would laugh despite herself. However, Sally soon realized that she was encouraging this behavior, and she stopped laughing when her child used inappropriate language. But to her dismay, as soon as Sally decided not to laugh anymore, the child began to cuss moreoften before she finally stopped using bad language. Which of the following best explains why the childs inappropriate behavior increased temporarily?
an extinction burst
After "Little Albert" was conditioned to fear a white rat, he began to fear several other furry things. This is an example of
Choose one answer. a. spontaneous recovery.
stimulus generalization
If a behavior continues to be exhibited in spite of the fact that no reinforcement is being given, it is likely that the behavior
has been previously conditioned according to a partial schedule of reinforcement
All examples of classical conditioning begin with a pre-existing relationship between the
an unconditioned stimulus and an unconditioned response
In operant conditioning, when a behavior that has been reinforced exhibits itself only in certain situations or contexts, what has occurred?
discrimination
When a parent gives into a childs tantrum in order to stop the childs tantrum behavior, this leads to a greater likelihood that when the child throws a tantrum in the future, the parent will give in again. This change in the parents behavior is an example of
negative reinforcement
learning
a relativley permanent change in behavoir, or a potential for behavior that result from experience.
instrumental and operant coditionin are
two interchangable labels for the same basic explanation of conditionig
primanry reinforcers have more what basis then secondary
biological
In one of Albert Banduras Bobo doll studies, children observed a model behaving aggressively toward the Bobo doll without receiving any positive or negative consequences for the behavior. Later, when these children were given an opportunity to be with the Bobo doll, they tended to
act agressivley toward the Bobo doll
In Pavlovs original studies, salivation to meat was a/an ____, and salivation to a buzzer was a/an ____.
unconditioned response, conditioned response
The simplest type of learning seen in living things is
habituation
Continuous schedules of reinforcement are to ____ as partial schedules of reinforcement are to ____.
faster extinction rates, slower extinction rates
The underlying process of classical conditioning is basically
association
Positive reinforcement is to ____ as negative reinforcement is to ____.
addiition of something unpleasent, removal of something unplesent
Systematic desensitization is a modern version of
counterconditioning
The phrase "7 ± 2 bits" describes the
capacity of short term learning
The three major functions of memory are
encoding, storage, and retrieval
The fact that recalling a memory involves reconstructing the basic elements and constructing other elements to fill the gaps in our memories suggests that human memory can be
highley inaccurate
example of the use of explicit memory
remebering that you have a dentist appt.
flashbulb memories
NOT accurate in detail
retrograde amnesia
past
anterograde amnesia
future
shallow level of processing
maintence rehersal
deep level of processing
elaborative rehersal
Top-down perceptual processing provides a good example of how
short term memory and long term memory often work in a parallel manner.
Short-term memory is best described as
small capacity and short duration
Semantic memory is
conceptual memory
The working memory model views
working memory and short-term memory as parts of long-term memory
Since our long-term memory uses schemata to store information
the information is highly organized
repeating the definition over and over again, you are using
maintenance rehearsal