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Emerging Adulthood

the transition to adult roles has become so prolonged that it has spawned a new transitional phase of development extending from late teens to the mid twenties. During these years most people have left adolescence but are still some distance from taking on adult responsibilities rather they explore alternatives more intensely than they did as teenagers.

Biological aging/.senescence

begins genetically influenced declines in the functioning of organs and systems that are universal in all members of our species.

Free Radicals

one probably cause of age-related DNA and cellular abnormalities is the release of these naturally occurring highly reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen.

Cross Linkage theory of Aging

over time protein fibers that make up the body's connective tissue form bonds or links with one another. When these normally separate fibers cross link tissue becomes less elastic leading to many negative outcome including loss of flexibility in the skin and other organs clouding of the lens of the eye clogging of the arteries and damage to the kidneys.

Basal Metabolic Rate

the amount of energy the body uses at complete rest

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

refers to an array of physical and psychological symptoms that usually appear 6 to 10 days prior to menstruation.

Postformal thought

cognitive development beyond Piaget's formal operations

Epistemic Cognition

refers to our reflection on how we arrived at facts, beliefs, and ideas

Dualistic thinking

dividing information, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they.

Relativistic thinking

viewing all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought

commitment within relativistic thinking

instead of choosing between opposing views they try to formulate a more satisfying perspective that synthesizes contradictions.

Pragmatic thought

a structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real world problems

Cognitive affective complexity

awareness of positive and negative feelings and coordination of them into a complex organized structure


acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field or endeavor which is supported by the specialization that begins with selecting a college major or an occupation since it takes many years for a person to master any complex domain.

Fantasy Period

in early and middle childhood children gain insight into career options by fantasizing about them

Tentative Period

between ages 11 and 16, adolescents think about careers is more complex ways at first in terms of their interests and soon as they become more aware of personal and educational requirements for different vocations in terms of their abilities and values

Realistic Period

by the late teens and early twenties with the economic and practical realities of adulthood just around the corner, young people start tomorrow their options. A first step is often further exploration, gathering more information about possibilities that blend with their personal characteristics. In the final phase, crystallization, they focus on a general vocational category and experiment for a time before settling on a single occupation.

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