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EXAM 2 BIOS 100
Terms in this set (36)
When your muscle cells break down sugar for energy under aerobic conditions, the synthesis of ATP takes place primarily
in the mitochondrion
When your muscle cells break down sugar for energy under anaerobic conditions the synthesis of ATP takes place primarily
in the cytoplasm
Robert Lustig suggests that elevated fructose consumption over recent decades may have had a significant role in the obesity epidemic. Part of the explanation he provides is that most of the calorie load of dietary fructose is processed in
A gallon of gasoline provides about 31,000 Calories of energy. That is about the same amount of energy found in _________ McDonalds hamburgers.
Lipid droplets are the cellular site for
An agent that dissipates the proton gradient of mitochondria without their need to pass through the FoF1ATP synthase is called an __________________________ of oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following does a chloroplast have that a mitochondrion doesn't:
a thylakoid space
what redox reactions occur in Photosystem I?
reduction of NADP+ to NADPH
Pheophytin is an important _____________________________ in photosystem II
lants release oxygen into the atmosphere as the product of a water cleaving reaction carried out in _________________________ to replenish electrons given up by P680.
A small acorn over time can grow into a huge oak tree. The wood in such a tree can weigh many tons, even after it has been cut into logs and dried. Where does most of this mass come from as the tree grows?
gases in the air
The proton gradient in the chloroplast goes from a high proton concentration in the _____________ to a low concentration in the ____________________
thylakoid space ; stroma
Derek Lovley and colleagues at UMass in Amherst developed a process they called microbial electrosynthesis where anaerobic bacteria fix carbon to produce molecules like acetate and butyrate in response to feeding them:
ATP synthesized in the stroma of the chloroplast is primarily used to
power the dark reactions of photosynthesis in the Calvin cycle
The mechanism of ATP synthesis in question 14 is known as
The chloroplast ATP synthase (CFoF1) is anchored in
the thylakoid membrane
The first radioactive compound detected by feeding C3 plants radioactive CO2 was identified by paper chromatography in the lab of Melvin Calvin. The compound was identified as
The dark reactions of photosynthesis depend on the production of ________________and ________________ during the light reactions
NADPH and ATP
Chargaff's equivalency rules state that in a given DNA sample these 2 bases are present in equal amounts:
Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a sugar
Each strand in a double stranded DNA molecule has a 5' end and a 3' end. If the two strands of the DNA molecule are antiparallel, then their 3' ends
are present at opposite ends of the molecule
Watson-Crick pairing in the DNA double helix refers t
the complementary pairing of A- T base pairs and G- C base pairs
DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to a growing chain by connecting the 3' end of the last nucleotide in a growing polymer to the
5' position of the sugar residue in the next incoming nucleotide
Codons are three-base sequences that specify the addition of a single amino acid. How do eukaryotic codons and prokaryotic codons compare?
Codons are a nearly universal language among all organisms
A nonsense mutation is one common kind of mutation in a protein coding sequence in which an amino acid codon is replaced by a stop codon. Which of the following mutations corresponds to a nonsense mutation. (once again use the codon table).
UGG to UGA
Bacterial RNA polymerase enzymes depend on __________________________ to recognize promoters of genes that are to be transcribed.
Bacterial transcription is terminated by a signal in the transcript
to form a hairpin that dissociates it from RNA polymerase
The end of the transcript in mammals is determined by
a signal for addition of a polyA tail
A ribozyme is ________.
an RNA with catalytic activity
A particular triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is AAA. The anticodon on the tRNA that binds the mRNA codon is ________.
The central dogma states that genetic information in cells flows from
DNA to RNA to protein
Which of the following occurs in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes?
concurrent transcription and translation
Basal transcription factors in eukaryotes play a comparable role to _______________ in prokaryotes
Which biological pathway is the reaction shown here most likely to be a part of?
the TCA cycle in a mitochondrion
Jacob and Monod discovered the lacI gene in the course of characterizing mutations that affected the ability of E coli to metabolize
Normally the lacI gene functions as a negative regulator that exerts its effect by binding to
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