Modern East Asia Midterm
Terms in this set (43)
-Manchu hairstyle, imposed on Chinese during Qing dynasty, "keep hair or lose head"
-pigtail - front of head clean shaved &back braided
traditionally - Chinese never cut hair
-symbol of subordination to Manchus
Secret Memorial System
-Information for the emperor from his capital and provincial officials came in the form of "memorials". -These were carefully written documents that were carried to the court by government couriers and processed in the Grand Secretariat, where they were copied and evaluated before being passed on to the emperor.
-Kangxi, in the 1690s, began to develop a truly secret system of "palace memorials" which would be delivered to the palace by the writers' own household couriers, brought unopened to the emperor by his most trusted eunuchs, annotated by him in secret ink, and read and sealed by him in private.
Grand Council emerged - dealt with certain events - headed by emperor and excluded Mandarins
The Complete Book of Four Treasuries
-commissioned by Qianlong to demonstrate the height of the Qing dynasty by surpassing the Ming dynasty and their encyclopedia
-people were forced to hand in books by royal decree
-Ming encyclopedia was burned
-military might of the Manchus (big factor bc they couldn't conquer Vietnam, Mongolia, or Turkestan)
-conceived themselves as universal empires & heaven's mandate to rule
-racial essentialism vs. culturalism
-(1736-1795)—Kangxi's grandson; 6th emperor of Qing dynasty
-could read and write in Manchurian, practiced archery, his reign was a turning point of going from prosperity to decline
-launched Anti-Zhungar campaign from 1755-59 that completely destroyed Tribal Zhungar people -accomplished huge feat of the Complete Library of the Four Treasuries
-also ruled over the military conquest of Xinjiang
-Manchurians moved to China creating the Qing "pure" dynasty
-pastoral nomads ->turned to agriculture
-considered outside colonizers
-chieftain Nurhaci unified Manchu tribes into centralized state
-expelled Ming dynstasty from Manchuria, captured Korea + Mongolia, launched small invasions to china
-waged campaigns against Ming loyalists
-establishment of Qing dynasty due to military prowess + support from former Ming generals + Confucian scholars who opposed eunuchs (ming)
-outlawed inter-cultural marriage and forbade chinese from traveling to Manchuria + learning Manchurian
-Chinese forced to shave head and grow Manchu-style queue for submission
-General under Nobanga
-suceeded as leading military power in Japan
-conquered Korea and tried to in China
-continued efforts to break power of daimyos
-constucted a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
Battle of Nagashino
-Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu deployed 3,000 musketeers to help defeat Takeda Katsuyori
-Significance: First significant use of firearms in Japanese warfare
-A Flemish missionary in China during the late 17th century, he became close friends with the Kangxi Emperor. As an accomplished mathematician, translator, and astronomer, he proved to the Qing imperial court that European astronomy was more accurate than Chinese astronomy.
-This led Kangxi to have him correct the Chinese calendar and rebuild the Beijing Ancient Observatory, which he then served as director - Competition with Chinese astronomer
-Kangxi gave him the highest level of the mandarinate and gave him permission to preach Christianity anywhere in the Qing empire, a major accomplishment for the Jesuits who were allowed out of exile to continue preaching.
-Important as an illustration of the influence European science had on China through the Jesuits.
(1591 - 1666)
-A German Jesuit missionary to China who won favor with the Chinese Emporer for his work on their calendar and predicting an eclipse
-Because of him, many more Jesuit missionaries were let in to China.
-The pioneer of the Jesuit effort in China.
-He studied Chinese and became the first Jesuit to enter China. (shaved head in order to assimilate)
-There he learned Confucian and Old Chinese classics and built a church in Chinese architectural style.
-He was sought by Chinese who wanted to succeed in the imperial examination or wanted their sons to be successful.
-A dispute over ritual between the Jesuits and other Roman Catholic religious orders, sparked a crisis.
-The Jesuits supported the celebration of the Mass in Chinese and the performance of other ceremonies in terms understandable to the Chinese.
-The Franciscans and other missionaries felt that the Jesuits had sold out the essentials of the Christian faith in order to win converts.
-went to Emperor's summer palace, uninvited and delivered a letter from King George III to Qian-long asking for a better trade agreement including Chinese acceptance of British goods
-Qianlong denied Britain's request when he refused to kowtow
-sign of Chinese arrogance while British are open.
-used to control western trade: trading confined to port of Canton in S. China.
-Trade run by hong merchants.
-Hoppo would collect taxes (also surcharges & regulations).
-Traders confined to factories.
-British start to not like system (couldn't bring wives nor settle down), half of world's silver in China, Chinese wanted medical opium & British sold it, but also smuggled in illegal opium.
Treaty of Nanjing
-1842, ended Opium war
-said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, not china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws.
-This treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws. --Loss of prestige and leads to anti-Machuism, also leads to economic sovereignty in international trade
-Hong Xiuquan was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion (nearly 20 million people died).
-Xiuquan was a relatively poor man that needed to sacrifice all he had for education - Hakka
-He took the civil service exam 3 times and could not afford to bribe the government.
-Given Christian Track and believed that he was the brother of Jesus and that god sent him to convert China to Christianity.
-He believed that he was sent by God to purify the world.
- "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace"
-Hong Xiquan's goals included abolishing private property, redistribution of land, and gaining equality of men and women (banned foot binding, gender segregation, & collective sibling ownership of property).
-Created his own currency
-Attack on idolatry, anti-Machu & Confucianism
-Hong Xiuquan conquers Nanjing but cannot get the support of other rebel groups due to his views.
-significance - wanted to return Chinese to biblical worship & appealed to Westerners bc he wanted to be modern, opened banks, produced steamships
-(1811‑1872): Confucian statesman/general/scholar; leader of the Hunan provincial army (Xiang) that defeated the Taiping forces in Nanjing and put an end to the rebellion.
-Played an important role in Qing self‑strengthening efforts, advocating the use of modern military technology and enlisting a group of talented men around him to serve the Qing cause.
-Adhered to strict Confucian standards of discipline, diligence, and loyalty to the emperor.
-1860-1895.. flourished especially in the 1860s and the 1870s.
-reform ideas by scholars like Feng Guifen, Zeng Guofan, and Li Hongzhang
-military reform (how soldiers were trained and weapons were used)
-Foreign affairs (dockyards were established, schools opened to teach European languages and international law, and foreign office established)
-adopting the slogan "chinese learning at the base, western learning for use" (tried to limit practical learning and also focused on industrialization)
-Li Hongzhang had a series of projects
-resistance from conservatives was strong
-Qing court was also not for a fundamental change and this movement never solved China's problems
"Chinese learning as the substance, Western learning as practical use"
-war between Japan and China during 1894-1895
-international showcase of who was doing better
-battle for control over Korea
-the Li-Ito Convention (1895) led to an agreement which placed both countries in Korea
-after a rebellion takes place in Korea, both countries send forces and Japan refuses to remove its troops from a Chinese controlled area
- (1895) Treaty of Simonoseki is signed
-China paid them 200 million ounces in silver & cession of Taiwan to Japan, made Korea a nominally independent country
-aka Sun Wen and Sun Zhongshand
-born in Canton and raised in Hawaii
-The first great revolutionary leader in 20th century China who founded the Alliance League in 1905.
-The League aimed to overthrow the Qing to make China a republic, get rid of foreign powers and distribute land to peasants.
-He created the three principles of the people, Nationalism, Democracy, and Livelihood.
-the Wuchang uprising in Oct. 1911
-a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups (China Revive Society & Restoration Society) -together by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.
-wanted to established a republic and distribute land equally.
-most powerful general after the death of Li Hongzhang
-served as commander of the Northern Army & Baoding Military Academy
-after the 1911 Revolution, the Qing dynasty did not immediately fall
-Shikai played a major role in end of Qing dynasty and became president in 1912
-strong credentials as a reformer of the old and self-strengthing
-initiated reforms in education, commerce, and industry
-accepted parliamentary elections but refused to accept Sun Yat sen's Nationalist Party win of a majority of the house
-tried to become emperor and make Confucianism the state religion
-people were outraged, but he suddenly died
-significance: left chinese government fragmented, but made some education reforms, suppressed opium production, and promoted judicial reform
Three People's Principles
-These were the three main parts of Sun Yatsen's (Sun Zhongshan's) revolutionary platform.
-They can be summarized as 1) Nationalism (self-rule as opposed to Manchu rule or foreign rule) 2) Republicanism (full democracy to be phased in gradually and 3) "Socialism" (The new state should care about people's material well-being.)
The Treaty of Versailles
-This agreement after WWI which gave the Shandong Province in China to Japan.
-Increased Japanese pressure on China
- Lead to massive student demonstrations in Beijing, a boycott of Japanese goods, and protests in other cities
-Ultimately lead to the May 4th Movement (social and cultural movement)
The New Youth (magazine)
-This published work was created by Chen Duxiu
-challenged long-standing Confucian values
-influenced students that participated in the May Fourth Movement
-written in vernacular Chinese & made that writing style popular
-strongly against feudalism and advocated for marxism and socialism
-1915-1918 focused on opposing Chinese conservatism
-1919-1921 influential for supporting communist party
-1921-1926 published CCP views (agreed/disagreed)
-significance - key goals were national survival and enlightenment
-founder of the New Youth publication
-received tradition education and took civil service exam before studying abroad in Japan & France
-participated in the 1911 revolution
-disliked chinese conservatism (focused on socialism & marxism)
-disliked Confucian values (thought women should be equal, no arranged marriage, foot binding, equal education)
-co-founded the Communist Party
-widely recognized today as a key contributor to Chinese liberalism and language reform in his advocacy for the use of written vernacular Chinese.
-He was influential in the May Fourth Movement, one of the leaders of China's New Culture Movement, was a president of Peking University
- Hu Shi, pragmatic, believes it should learn from the West, but not import things (like Marxism) from the west
-him and Lu Xun both skeptical about communism and socialism
-one of the first Chinese to write well in vernacular
-studied medicine in Japan, but changed his mind after watching a newsreel of a Chinese man being executed by Japanese in Manchuria after being accused of spying for the Russians
-wanted to change spirits and minds of Chinese
-wrote shorts for the New Youth ( The true story of Ah-Q & Diary of a Madman)
-forced to stay out of the 1911 revolution
-executed by revolutionaries after he wanted to commit a robbery, but didn't go through with it (still blamed)
-significance - gave voices to those who were weary of China's old order but cautious about easy solutions posed by the revolutionaries & blamed China's situation on China and not foreignors
Whampoa military academy
-This was a military academy of the Republic of China (ROC) which produced many prestigious commanders who fought in many of China's conflicts in the 20th century, notably the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
-The military academy was officially opened on May 1, 1924 under the Kuomintang (KMT), but the first lessons began on June 16, 1924.
-The inauguration was on Changzhou Island offshore from the Whampoa (Huangpu) dock in Guangzhou, thus earning its name. During the inaugural ceremonies, Sun Yat-sen delivered a speech that was later to become the lyrics of the national anthem of the Republic of China.
-had major influence on KMT to CCP because the graduates would influence both parties politically
Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)
-This was Sun Yat Sen's heir (Nationalist Party)
-came from a gentry-merchant family
-educated in Japan (military training), experience in Soviet Union; marriage with Song Meiling
-once commander of Whampoa Military Academy in Canton during 1924
-lead the Northern Expedition and unified China; making him China's leader
-disliked the may fourth movement bc he believed it corrupted china's youth
-anti-communism, but pro capitalism
-oversaw modest reforms, but mainly focused on internal power struggle from CCP & then Japanese
-arrested during Xi'an incident
-fled to Taiwan after a CCP victory and established government in exile
government in exile had been recognized by many countries as the legitimate government of China, and Taiwan controlled China's seat in the United Nations until the end of Chiang's life in 1975.
The Nationalist Party (Kuomintang & Guomindang)
-Sun Yat-Sen founded the National People's Party in 1912 (now ruling party in Taiwan)
- goal of defeating China's warlords and uniting China under a democratic government.
-After Dr. Sun's death Chiang Kai-Shek led the party in its fight against China's Communists.
-lost civil war due to poor military strategy and notorious inflation
-First agreement between the KMT & CCP to extinguish warlords in China
-Lead to the creation of the National Revolutionary Army and the beginning of the the Northern Expedition
-both parties had their own aims of this agreement
-Chiang Kia-shek ended the agreement before the Expedition was completed and led to Civil War between both parties
-Second united front was formed a few years later after the Xi'an incident to fight the Japanese
The Northern Expedition
-this was a military campaign led by the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1926 to 1928.
-Its main objective was to unify China under the Kuomintang banner by ending the rule of local warlords.
-tried to save China from imperialism
-unite & modernize China
-movement among urban elite
-It led Chinese reunification of 1928 with its base in Nanjing
The Nanjing Massacre
-otherwise known as Rape of Nanjing
-Japanese invaded Nanjing
-lasted 6 weeks.
-20,000 women raped.
-horrible treatment of Chinese from the Japanese (murder, theft, arson)
-China says 300,000 were killed
-Japan says 50,000 were killed.
-Part of this brutality came from the samurai mentality: to defeat your enemy or die fighting.
Chinese Communist Party
-established in 1921
-founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in the wake of the May Fourth Movement
-based on Marxism-Leninism, appeared scientific and anti-western
-based in Jiangxi
-two united fronts with nationalists
-emphasis on urban working class based on Mao's first hand experience in Hunan
-civil war with KMT and assumed full power in 1948
-born in a farming village in the Hunan province
-while in school, he participated in protesting the Qing dynasty and joined the republican army (soon quit to continue education)
-had published works in New Youth on physical education
-teacher influenced his views on Chinese government and followed his teacher to Beijing University where he was introduced to marxism and the russian revolution
-was the Hunan delegate at the first CCP meeting
-after first United Front went badly in the middle of the northern expedition
-this also means propertyless class
-individuals are grouped by their position in a market economy
-position depends on skills and occupation
-this theory aimed to over throw feudalism
-Chiang Kai-Shek sent Zhang Xueliang to Xi'an to finally defeat the Communists.
-Chiang Kai-shek flew into Xi'an and relieved Zhang of his command and ordered that the army begin attacking the Communists.
-Zhang and Yang arrest Chiang and his entourage in December 1936
-Zhang was commander of the forces in Northeast China (Manchuria) and Yang was commander of the forces stationed around Xi'an, northwestern China
-Zhang wanted Chiang to unite with the communists against a Japanese invasion
-leading CCP members met with Chiang and Yang to discuss Chiang's fate and a united front
-CCP had mixed opinions on executing Chiang (both Zhang & Yang's small armies called for it)
-in the end, they all agree to release Chiang and unite against Japan
-Zhang Xueliang accompanied Chiang back to Nanjing and then was put on house arrest.
-Made the CCP look good bc they were willing to work together to fight a common enemy
-period in Mao era that equally distributed land to all citizens
-Mao stripped away landlord class
-everyone was in a new social ranking
-gradually equalized wealth gap between classes
-was important because China had huge populations in rural areas and gained peasant support
-created a caste-like system because those related to landlords could not hold positions of leadership
-did not improve productivity
-many landlords were executed due to rebellion and past offenses
-Communist party leadership gave up Jiangxi Soviet
-communist soldiers had to find a new base to settle
-86,000 soldiers and followers started & only 8,000 survived
-soldiers marched 10,000 kilometers & eventually settled in Shaanxi
-in pursuit of Nationalist Army
-this was a reflection of Mao's revolutionary strategy & helped him reach party leadership
"The Land regulations of the heavenly dynasty"
-property reform movement by Hong Xiuquan
-Nobody should keep private property. All things should be presented to the Supreme Ruler, so that He will be enabled to make use of them and distribute them equally (communism), and so all will be equally fed & clothed
-land distribution depended on number of persons in the family
-equal respect for abundance and scarcity (if there was a shortage or drought, people could take from other places)