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Life science HAT review
Terms in this set (152)
-Always listen and follow directions and report to
the teacher if any accidents occur.
-The correct way to smell a chemical if to waft it
(fanning it into your nose).
-Always were googles around fire, chemicals, or
-Meter stick or metric ruler- liner measurements
-Balance (triple beam balance)- mass
-Graduated cylinder- volume
Instruments used to measure
Linear measurements (length, width, height)
Small volume measurements
-Think: King Henry Died Unfortunately Drinking
-Units place- meter/liter/gram- have a value of one
-Move right- multiplying/moving left- dividing: number of
spaces moved gives you the multiple of ten.
-Read graduated cylinder at eye level from the bottom of
the curve (meniscus) at the surface of the liquid.
-Record volume in mL
-Subtract the original volume of water from the final volume
of the water with irregular- shaped solid in it to determine
the displaced volume, which is the the volume of the
irregular- shaped solid.
-Method is called water displacement. Answer should be
recorded in mL.
Volume of an irregular- shaped solid
-Quantitative data- numbers taken from measurements or
by exact count.
-Qualitative data- Uses words to describe the condition or
quality of something.
Quantitative and continuous data- uses lines to compare data that overlaps and changes over time.
Quantitative and discrete data- uses bars to compare each category of data.
Compares parts of a whole value expressed as percentages.
Circle (pie) graph
-Factor that is changed on purpose
-Levels of the IV: setup that represents each value of the IV
-Always plotted on the horizontal or x- axis on line and bar
Independent (manipulative) variable (IV)
-Factor that responds to changes in the IV
-Determines the type of data collected
-Always plotted on the vertical or y- axis on line and bar
Dependent (Responding) variable (DV)
Factors that are kept the SAME throughout all the trails in an experiment
One run of an experiment, which includes testing all the levels of the IV
The number of times an experiment is repeated after the first trial is repeated
To make an educated guess as to what the outcome of an experiment will be by explaining the relationship between the IV and DV.
To use your senses (taste, touch, smell, sight, and hearing) to gather information about your surroundings.
To describe the amount, quantity, or value of something in exact units.
To make a prediction as to the amount of a measurement when exact units are not needed.
Logical steps used to solve a problem
(1) Identify the problem
(2) Research the problem
(3) Suggest a hypothesis
(4) Design and conduct an experiment to test the hypothesis
(5) Observe, record, and analyze data
(6) Make a conclusion
Steps of the scientific method
They are made out of cells (smallest independent unit that are the building blocks of living things)
What are living things made out of?
All chemical processes in living things that deal with how energy made, used, and stored.
Taking in nutrients
Breaking down food
Getting rid of wastes
Combining oxygen with digested food to produce energy
Movement: Occurs in all living things
Locomotion: Occurs in only animals and protozoans (moving from place to place)
Change in environment that cause an organism to reach
Reaction to stimulus
Increase in size and development (cycle of change/ maturation)
Making more offspring like oneself
2 parents- genes mix- offspring produced are similar to parents, but NOT exact (method by which animals and plants reproduce)
1 parent organism- parent cell splits and makes an exact copy of itself- offspring are IDENTICAL to parent organism (method by which simple organisms reproduce and the method by which the cells that make up plants and animals reproduce)
Physical changes and behaviors that evolve over time to help organisms reproduce and survive
Categories of adaptation: (a) For locomotion (b) For food- getting (c) For protection (d) For reproduction
What is the source of all energy on Earth?
CO2 + H2O + chlorophyll + light energy -> C6H120O6 + O2
Carbon dioxide + water + chlorophyll + sun -> Glucose + oxegen
C6H12O6 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O + energy
Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + energy
The sun's energy is moved through organisms through food chains and food webs.
How is the sun's energy transferred through living things?
Producers (autotrophs) are the organisms that directly capture the sun's energy to make food and begin food chains.
What are producers?
Consumers (heterotrophs) depend on other organisms for energy.
(1) Herbivores- plant eaters
(2) Carnivores- meat eaters
(3) Omnivores- organisms that eat both plants and animals
What are consumers?
Decomposers break down dead organisms and assist in the recycling of essential nutrients.
What are decomposers?
Triangle- shaped diagram that represents the available energy at each level of a food chain.
Most vital (important) compound on Earth.
-Respiration: occurs in all organisms -> oxygen take in and
carbon dioxide given off
-Photosynthesis: occurs in autotrophs -> carbon dioxide
taken in and oxygen given off
-Transpiration: occurs in plants -> water vapor exits through
stomata (pores) on under the surface of leaves
-Homeostasis: ability to maintain balance between internal
and external environment.
-Warmblooded (endothermic): animals (birds and
mammals) that keep the same body temperature
regardless of their surroundings.
-Coldblooded (exothermic) animals (fish, amphibians, and
reptiles) whose body temperature fluctuates (changes) as
environmental temperatures go up and down.
Includes the area in which organisms make their habitat, find food and water, obtain energy, find a mate, reproduce, and care for and protect their offspring.
The basic unit of structure and function in all living things; the building blocks of organisms
-Hooke discovered and named the cell.
-Virchow stated that living cells can only come from other
-Schleiden stated that all plants are composed of cells.
-Schwann stated hat all animals are composed of cells.
very simple cells without an organized nucleus and most organelles (only found in monerans)
Cells that contain an organized and complex organelles
Refers to organisms that are made of only one cell
Refers to organisms that are made of many cells
Living protective border that controls what enters and leaves the cell
Living gel that fills the inside of cells
Controls all cell activities, including cell reproduction
The blueprint of all living things that determines all pf our characteristics
Basic unit of heredity, composed of DNA and protein, that codes the traits an organism inherits.
Rod- shaped structure that carries genes from cell to cell
Network of tubes that transport materials within and between cells
Most attached to the walls of the endoplasmic reticulum; same float freely in cytoplasm.
Site of aerobic respiration
Cleans up cell; remove warn out cell parts
Stores food, water, enzymes, and wastes
Large vacuole in plant cells that stores the water needed for photosynthesis
Site of photosynthesis; traps energy from the sun to make food (the sugar glucose) for plants. Mostly located in cells that make up the leaves.
Rigid (stiff) nonliving, outer border that protects, supports, and provides shape to plant cells.
(a) Captures sun's energy to make food
(b) Surrounded by cell wall (not in animal cells)
(c) Has chloroplasts (not in animal cells)
(d) Has on large central vacuole for storing water
(a) Must ingest food to make energy
(b) Has lysosomes (not in plant cells)
(c) Has many small vacuoles which store a variety of
Cell -> tissue -> organ -> organ systems -> complex organism
Levels of organization: Smallest to largest/ simplest to most complex
Transport in which molecules move freely from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration by their own kinetic energy (think: it's like riding a bicycle downhill). Passive transport does NOT require the use of cell energy, known as ATP.
The movement of molecules (substances) from areas of high to low concentration.
The movement of water across a selectively permeable from areas of high to low concentration
The factor that determines the direction molecules move.
Requires cell energy (ATP) and special "carrier molecules" to move large molecules against the diffusion gradient from areas of lower to higher concentrations (think: it's like riding a bicycle uphill)
Selectively permeable (semipermeable)
The cell membrane is ........... ........... (.............) which means it has openings of different sizes that allow the molecules of some substances to easily pass through, while limiting the passage of other molecules.
Interphase, mitosis, and cytokineses
Three stages on life of a cell (IMC)
Period of cell growth and development between phases of mitosis
(1) The number of chromosomes in nucleus must double
(2) DNA makes an exact copy of itself. This process is called repletion.
2 key events that MUST occur in interphase before mitosis can begin:
First stage in mitosis. Nuclear membrane breaks down. Chromosomes become paired chromatids. Centrioles migrate to ends of cell establishing poles. Spindle forms and the chromatids begin to move toward the mid line of the cell called the equator.
Second stage in mitosis. Paired chromosomes in up at the equate of a cell and attached to spindle.
Third stage in mitosis. Chromatids pull apart and each half begins to move toward opposite poles at each end of the cell.
Fourth and final stage in mitosis. New nuclear membranes form around chromosomes at each pole, forming two new nuclei. Spindle fibers disappear. Cytoplasm cleaves (pinches in) along the equator of cell.
"Father of genetics"; studied pea plants to determine how traits are inherited
The passing of traits (inherited characteristics) from parents to offspring
Unit of heredity, composed of DNA and protein, that codes inherited traits
Weaker gene in a gene pair which only shows when paired with another recessive gene (represented by a lower case letter)
Stronger gene in a gene pair that is always expressed when inherited. This masks or covers up the expression of a recessive gene (represented by a capital letter).
Genotype in which both genes in a pair are the same
Refers to those genotypes in which both genes coding a trait are dominant (example: BB)
Refers to those genotypes in which both genes coding a trait are recessive (example: bb)
Genotype in which the genes coding a trait are contrasting; one is a dominant gene and one is recessive gene (example: Bb). In this the dominant gene masks up the recessive gene so only the dominant gene shows.
The physical expression of the genotype; an organism's physical appearance (the way it looks)
Used to determine the possible gene pairing for a genetic cross.
Symbols for males and females
The breeding of organisms that have highly prized characteristics to ensure the most desirable traits are inherited in offspring.
The grouping of organisms based on their similarities.
Science of classifying organisms
Science of naming organisms
Level of classification
Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> species
7 taxons of classification
2- part naming system devolved by Carolus in which every living thing is given a scientific name
(1) Genus name given first; capitalized / species name second; lower case
(2) Scientific name- typed in italics; underlined if handwritten
Correct way to name organisms
- Eukaryotic, multicellular
- Consumers/ heterotrophs (eats other organisms)
- Sexual reproduction
- They have movement and locomotion
Kingdom animalia (animal kingdom)
- Eukaryotic, multicellular
- Producers/ autotrophs carries on photosynthesis (makes
own food using the sun's energy)
- Sexual reproduction (gametes produce seeds)
- Only has movement
Kingdom plante (plant kingdom)
- Eukaryotic, multicellular (except for unicellular yeasts)
- Consumers/saprophytes (absorbed nutrients)
- Asexual reproduction by spores (yeast by budding)
- Only movement
Kingdom fungi (fungi kingdom)
- Eukaryotic protozoans (animal- like protists), unicellular
(algae and seaweed- multicellular)
- Consumers/heterotrophs (protozoans),
autotrophs/producers (algae and seaweed)
- Most unicellular species asexual by binary fission (splitting
in half), multicellular species sexually
- Protozoans have both movement and locomotion (algae
and seaweed have only movement)
Kingdom protista (protist kingdom)
- Prokaryotic, most unicellular
- Most are heterotrophic: absorbs nutrients
- Reproduces asexually by binary fission
- Has both movement and locomotion
Kingdom monera (Monera kingdom)
Used to magnify cells and microscopic parts/organisms in each of the five kingdoms so they can be observed and studied
Magnification of lenses:
(a) Ocular lens- 10x
(b) Low power objective lens- 10x
(c) High power objective lens- 40x, 43x, or 45x
Led to development of cell theory, as before it's (microscope) invention, no scientists had observed cells
Remains of once living organisms which are usually found in sedimentary rock
Traits that make an individual different from other members in its spices
Change in DNA code within cells, resulting in new traits
Organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive, reproduce, and pass on desirable traits to their offspring
The destruction or death of entire species as a result of the species' members members inability to to adapt to drastic changes in their environment (they all die off)
Area in which the living (biotic) things interact with one another and the nonliving (abiotic) parts in their environment
Two or more populations of living things
Organisms of the same species living together in a community
Where an organism lives in a community; its home
The jobs or roles an organism takes on to obtain the basic needs (energy, food, water, gas exchange, living space, finding a mate, and proper temperature) for itself and its family
Living parts of an ecosystem (includes every living member of each of the five kingdoms)
Nonliving parts of an ecosystem (includes sunlight, water, air, soil, and weather)
Births and immigration (moving into an area)
Deaths and emigration (moving out of an area)
Process in which an overload of nutrients is added to rivers, lakes, and streams as a result of increased runoff of nitrates and phosphates from fertilizers
The replacement of one community by another over time
Most stable community in an ecosystem
Struggle between members of a community for their basic needs
food makers and consumers
Hunter and prey (food eaten by the predator)
Individuals in a population work together to obtain resources that benefits all members of group
Occurs in social insects (bees, ants, wasps, etc) in which roles are assigned to different organisms for the benefit and survival of the entire colony
Division of labor
Two organisms live together and at least on member benefits
(1) Mutualism- both organisms benefits (+ +)
(2) Commensalism- one organism benefits and the other is
not affected (+ 0)
(3) Parasitism- one organism benefits and the other is harmed (+ -)
Types of symbiosis
Behaviors, traits, and physical structures that help an organism protect itself and its family
Variations in color that enable an organism to protect itself within its habitat
Change in color that allows an organism to blend in and hide in its habitat
Camouflage in which an organism hides itself by
"wearing a costume" that enables it to become part of another organism
Camouflage in which stripes, dots, or splotches, create an optical illusion in which an organism seems to have vanished against the background of its habitat
Graduated coloration in which an organism is lighter on the bottom and darker on the top
In which an organism takes on the coloration of another organism, and by adapting the identity of this organism, gains protection for itself
Grassland, desert, rain forest, temperate, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, and the tundra
Terrestrial (land) biomes
Marine (saltwater) and freshwater
Aquatic (water) biomes
The recycling of water through the processes of evaporation (water to gas), condensation (gas to water in the form of precipitation falling from clouds), and transpiration (wader vapor emitted from from plants into the air through the stomata in their leaves)
(1) Rain (2) Snow (3) Sleet (4) Hail
Types of precipitation
Nitrogen is recycled between legumes (soybeans, peanuts, etc), animals, and the air the air through the work of decomposers
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are recycled between organisms and the atmosphere through the processes of respiration (which occurs in all living things) and photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide- oxygen cycle
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