48 terms

Psychology 101 Chapter 9: Human Development

Textbook: Psychological Science, 4th Edition, Gazzaniga, Heatherton, Halpbern
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Piaget's Marble Test
Very young children do not understand quantity as a number, but as a length
Jean Piaget
Believed cognitive development occurs in four stages- sensorimoter, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
Formal Operational Stage
In this stage, people can think abstractly, formulate hypotheses, and test them through deductive logic
Concrete Operational Stage
In this stage, children begin to understand logical operations and are no longer fooled by appearances
Preoperational Stage
In this stage, children reason intuitively, not logically and cannot understand the law of conservation of quantity
Object Permanence
The understanding that an object still exists, even when it cannot be seen
Sensorimotor Stage
Infants acquire information through their sensory and motor skills
Telegraphic Speech
The tendency for toddlers to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words, but follow a logical syntax
Post Conventional Level
Highest stage of moral development; morality depends on abstract principles and the value of all life
Conventional Level
Middle stage of moral development; strict adherence to societal rules and the approval of others determines what is moral
Pre Conventional Level
Earliest level of moral development; at this level, self interest and event outcomes determine what is moral
Theory of Mind
The term used to describe the ability to explain and predict another person's behavior as a result of recognizing her or his mental state
Assimilation
Process by which we place new information into an existing schema
Infantile Amnesia
The inability to remember events from early childhood
Insecure Attachment
The attachment style for a minority of infants; infant may avoid eye contact with caregiver, alternating between approach and avoidance
Secure Attachment
The attachment style for a majority of infants; infant is confident in unfamiliar environments as long as the caregiver is present
Attachment
A strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances
Sensitive Periods
Time periods when specific skills develop most easily
Synaptic Pruning
A process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are used are preserved, and that are not used are lost
Dynamic Systems Theory
The view that development is a self organizing process, where new forms of behavior emerge through consistent interactions between a biological being and his environmental context
Teratogens
Environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus
Psychological Crisis, 0-2
Trust vs. mistrust
Psychological Crisis, 2-3
Anatomy vs. shame and doubt
Psychological Crisis, 4-6
Initiative vs. guilt
Psychological Crisis, 7-12
Industry vs. Inferiority
Psychological Crisis, 13-19
Identity vs. role confusion
Psychological Crisis, 20s
Intimacy vs. isolation
Psychological Crisis, 30s-50s
Generativity vs. stagnation
Psychologica Crisis, 60s and beyond
Integrity vs. despair
Perceptual Effect of Occlusions in Early Infancy
Infants are able to perceive that objects moving together are continuous
Stages of Development Inside the Womb
Zygote, implants to uterine wall, embryo, fetus
Permissive Parents
Parenting style consisting of very few rules and allowing children to makes most decisions and to control their own behavior
Authoritative Parents
Parenting style focused on setting reasonable rules and expectations while encouraging communication and independence
Authoritarian Parents
Parenting style focused on excessive rules, rigid belief systems, and the expectation of unquestioned obedience
Attachment
The strong bond a child forms with his or her primary caregiver
Gender Typing
The process of developing the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions associated with a particular gender
Gender Identity
The internal sense of being either male of female, usually congruent with biological gender
Critical Period
A time frame deemed highly important in developing in a healthy manner, can be physically, emotionally, behaviorally, or cognitively
Conservation
The understanding typically archived later in childhood that matter remains the same even when the shape changes
Centration (Egocentric)
A young child's tendency to focus only on his or her own perspective of a specific object and a failure to understand that others may see things differently
Accommodation
The creation of new cognitive schemes when objects, experiences, or other information does not fit with existing schemas
Assimilation
Incorporating objects, experiences, or information into existing schemas
Schema
The cognitive structure utilized to make sense of the world
Object Permanence
The understanding that objects exist even when they are not directly observed
Maturation
Changes due to natural process of aging, determined by your genetics
Gender Role
The accepted behaviors, thoughts, and emotions of a specific gender based upon the views of a particular society or culture
Fixation
In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, the failure to complete a stage successfully which results in a continuation of that stage into later adulthood
Developmental Psychology
Focuses on how children grow psychologically into who they are as adults