23 terms

Criminology Test 3

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Terms in this set (...)

occasional criminals
lack official criminal history, lack specialized knowledge of criminal techniques, crime is not their sole means of livelihood
conventional criminals
commit crimes of theft/larceny and burglary on a fairly persistent basis, considered "semiprofessionals" or "minor leaguers", delinquency persists into mid-20's, identification with criminal world
professional criminals
those who earn a considerable portion of their livelihood in criminal pursuits
vandalism
willful destruction of property without consent
burglary
unlawful entry of a structure in order to commit a felony or theft
arson
any willful or attempted malicious burning of a structure, vehicle, aircraft, or property of another
public-order crime
also called "crimes without victims" or "legislated morality" and refers to a number of activities that are illegal because they offend public morality
folk crime
relatively common violations that occur in part because of the complexity of modern society (things that we all commit)
Morris and Hawkins
"overreach of criminal law": governing such behaviors cause a number of secondary problems that aggravate crime problem
over criminalization
inappropriate extension of the criminal law into areas of personal conduct and morality
decriminalization
process of lessening penalties attached to particular offenses
under criminalization
refers to the fact that the criminal law fails to prohibit acts that many feel are male in se
broken windows theory
the need to regulate deviant conduct, signs of disorder can contribute to more serious crimes
behaviors that disrupt social, commercial and political life
moral panic
condition, episode person or group that emerges to societal values and interests
white collar crime
Sutherland; crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation
"crime in the suites" vs "crime in the streets"
corporate (organizational) crime
crimes committed by officials on behalf of the employing organization
occupational crime
personal violations that take place for self-benefit during the course of a legitimate occupation
corporation
legal entity that permits a business to make use of capital provided by stockholders
Sherman Antitrust Act
forbids restraint of trade and the formation of monopolies; makes price fixing a felony
public corruption
takes the form of political corruption by public servants or office holders or commercial corruption by employees in the private sector
private corruption
commercial bribery and kickbacks that benefit the individual
sweetheart contract
when labor officials and negotiators secretly make a deal with management to the disadvantage of the workers whom the labor officials are suppose to represent
whistleblowers
employees who step forward to reveal wrongdoing on the part of their employers