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44 terms

Chapter 12

Acyclovir is used to treat:
shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes
Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called:
Which of the following is not a mode of action of anti - viral?
bond to ergostero;l in the cell membrane
An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that:
blocks DNA replication
Which of the following will influence a physician's decision to prescribe and antimicrobial?
all of the choices are correct
Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including drugs?
Side effects that occur in patient tissues while they are on antimicrobic drugs include all the following, except:
development of resistance to the drug
Which bacteria does Levaquin target?
all of the choices are correct
All of the following pertain to cephalosporins, except:
they are synthetic drugs
All of the following are correct about Tamiflu and Relenza, except:
they prevent assembly and release of the virus
Which of these drugs is useful in treating infections by methicillin - resistant S. aureus and vancomycin - resistant Enterococcus?
Broad - spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause:
Why has the United States and Europe banned the use of human drugs in animal feeds?
because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem
Ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have:
a beta - lactam ring
Antimicrobics that are macrolides:
include azithromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin
The drug used against intestinal anaerobic bacteria, that can also alter normal flora causing antibiotic - associated colitis is:
The most versatile and useful antifungal drug that is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is:
amphotericin B.
Important characteristics of antimicrobial drugs include:
all of the choices are correct
All of the following are correct about allergic reactions, except:
allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug
he multidrug resistant pumps in many bacterial cell membranes cause:
prevention of drug entry into the cell
Which antimicrobic does not inhibit cell wall synthesis?
Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed:
narrow - spectrum
The drug that can cause aplastic anemic, and is used to treat typhoid fever and brain abscesses is:
Which of the following describes the mechanism of action for AZT
it is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis
Salvarsan was
used to treat syphilis
A "shotgun" approach to antimicrobial therapy involves:
using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater
There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because these organisms:
are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult
The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include:
all of the choices are correct
A ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans versus the minimum effective dose for that pathogen is assessed to predict the potential for toxic drug reactions. This is called the:
therapeutic Inex (TI)
Gram negative rods are often treated with:
Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat:
are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole are broad - spectrum azoles used to treat...................infections
Penicillins and cephalosporins:
block the peptidases that cross - link glycan molecules
Drug susceptibility testing:
determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics
Mebendazole, niclosamide,and invermectin are drugs used to treat........infections
All of the following could be reasons why antimicrobic treatment fails, except:
a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic
Antibiotics are derived from all the following, except:
A clinical microbiologist makes serial dilutions of several antimicrobics in broth, and then incubates each drug dilution series with a standard amount of a patient's isolated pathogen. What is this microbiologist setting up?
A chemical that inhibits beta - lactamase enzyme is:
clavulanic acid
All of the following pertain to fluoroquinoclones, except:
are nephrotoxic
attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
Antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed
broad - spectrum drugs
The drug used for several protozoan infections is: