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Pysc test 2
Terms in this set (103)
This is the process of maintaining information in memory over time.
This is the term used to refer to storing information by converting it into mental pictures.
visual imagery encoding
This is recall of when, where, and how information was acquired.
Using rehearsal to remember information reenters the information into short-term memory, thus adding this many seconds to the shelf life of the information.
"How I Met Your Mother" is a T.V. show based upon a father using this type of memory to tell his children a story.
This refers to the inability to retrieve, or blanking on, information once known (a failure to remember or retrieve information).
Forgetting an important task or item due to multi-tasking, being in a hurry, or having your attention redirected is called ___________.
The encoding specificity principle is best described as suddenly recalling once difficult to recall information due to an environmental _______.
cue or trigger
A person with damage to the temporal lobe may show no decline in speech but be unable to form new long-term memory has this form of amnesia.
Memory happens in this three step process (first____, second_______, and third_____).
encoding, storage, and retrival
Memories that are vivid, detailed, and
Long lasting are of this type.
This is the inability to store new long-term memories even though short-term memory is intact.
The memory for items or events pertaining to these three specific survival related themes is more likely to be remembered. (hint: think evolutionary theory)
sex, death, and food
Recovered memories of traumatic events from childhood are most likely due to this
Attending to a sensation causes it to be transferred from ____ to _____ memory
sensory to short term memory
The practice of relating information to past experiences is called ________
This occurs when an individual completes the same routine when studying as he/she does when taking the exam (e.g. sitting in the same desk, wearing the same clothes, wearing the same perfume/cologne)
state dependent retrieval
The parietal lobe is LEAST activated by this memory technique.
visual imagery encoding
memory for names and dates
when events are remembered as stories
memory without awareness: riding a bike, driving
memory with awareness
This is recalling and dwelling upon a traumatic event even months after the event
being nice by offering chocolate when she cleans up their plates: rewarding for doing something good
positive reinforcement via operant conditioning
Giving 100 bonus points for class attendance and taking back 10 points for each absence is an example of this type of operant conditioning in which a behavior (absences) is decreased by removing a stimulus (points).
" Watch what i can make pavlov do as soon as i drool, he'll smile and write in his little book" Describe the experiment
When one is given a reward meant to increase a desired behavior, this type of forcement has occurred.
This is a process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is different from the one used during acquisition
Compare and contrast the UR, CR, US, and CS in classical conditioning
UR & CR are always the same, salivating.
US- CS- tuning fork compared to food, makes the salivate
Thorndike is best known for his experiments using this.
Bandura is known for this experiment regarding observational learning.
bo bo doll
This is reinforcement introduced according to a set time between each occurrence.
Freud is to psychoanalytic theory as Skinner is to ________, Pavlov is to _______, and Chomsky is to _______.
operant conditioning, classical conditioning, nativist
This is the general process by which repeated exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in response to said stimulus.
Continued habituation to a stimulus results in this, which involves a rebound followed by decline.
Reinforcement is to __________behaviors as punishment is to _________behaviors
Spanking is an example of this
This is the initial stage of learning
Sometimes intended reinforcement goes wrong. Suppose an intended incentive to increase behavior was perceived as embarrassing, what is the term for the intended scenario and the actual one.
This is the ability to successfully distinguish between similar conditioned stimuli.
Rats given a drug that block this get lost in familiar mazes.
LTP: long term potentiation
Your teacher always brought pizza to class. Even though you no longer have her class, every time you pass her classroom you salivate. In this example, what is the US, CS, UR, and CR?
US: Pizza CS: the classroom when you pass by each time UR & CR: salivating
These are the four types of reinforcement schedules and their descriptions
This occurs when children (around the age of 2) learn words after just one exposure.
Noam Chomsky is best known for this theory
This is the phoneme in this example: Dog
a sound without meaning: D
This is the difference between a phoneme and a morpheme
Phoneme smallest unit of sound. Morpheme smallest unit of meaning
In this view, language is believed to be an innate biological capacity that humans have
Noam Chomsky is known for disagreeing with this theory.
skinners behaviorism theory
This is a set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful massages.
This was often used in efforts to teach apes human language.
ASL: American sign language
Newborns can distinguish among the ____of all languages, but by 6 months, they lose this ability.
These are the three differences between human language and animal communication
Complex structure, reference to intangible items, description or categorization by the thinker
These sentences have are the same regarding this and different regarding this.
The boy chased the ball.
The ball was chased by the boy.
Same deep structure( same meaning), but different surface structure (different wording).
The idea that language shapes the nature of thought is termed _________________.
The theory of linguistic relativity hypothesis
If a child understands _____ they will likely say "more milk" and not "milk more
Babbling occurs during this age range
This is the definition of a morpheme
smallest meaningful unit of language
Although few, the errors children make when learning to speak still respect these rules but may violate these rules.
Respect syntax Violate grammar rules
Brocas are is located here
left frontal cortex
Definition of Aphasia
difficulty in producing or comprehending language
Skinner's theory of language acquisition stated that infants learn language because of this
Reinforcement of language in the process of similar to shaping
Although not fully classified as language, most species have this.
systems of communication
Insight problem solving is rare because it is highly susceptible to these effects.
This is the type of reasoning that is NOT influenced by prior beliefs.
Belief neutral reasoning
Comparing a stimulus to ONE definitive example representing all stimuli in that category is the process described by this theory.
Comparing a stimulus to MULTIPLE examples representing all stimuli in that category is the process described by this theory.
This is defined by choosing to take risks when evaluating potential losses and avoiding risks when evaluating potential gains.
This is the idea that members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members, but may not be possessed by every member.
family resemblance theory
This is defined by ignoring the logic of an argument simply because the conclusion is in agreement with ones beliefs.
The mistaken belief that the likelihood of any two events is greater than the likelihood of just one event is called _________.
This is the tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed or unchanging.
The layout of the textbook, i.e. the organization of the chapters into topics, is an example of this
The tendency to have better recall for information that one is familiar with causing a bias toward the overrepresentation of that information is called __________.
Decisions about a current situation based upon previous investment in the situation is referred to as this.
This involves making a probability judgment by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event
This is the part of the brain that is active about 1/3 of a second prior to a sudden insight
The availability bias is an example of this.
This is the definition of Heuristic.
A fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee a solution will be reached
This is happening when we exaggerate the difference between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past
The tendency for people to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains
Beth is considering moving to England. She reads that the dollar retains 90% of its value when transferred to pounds. Nick is also considering moving to England. He reads that the dollar losses 10% of its value when transferred into pounds. Who is more likely to move to England and why?
Beth, because of the framing effect
According to rational economics theory, the 20% chance of winning $500 results in an expected value of $_______
100. (Multiple 20% by the value)
Active maintenance of information in the short-term memory is referred to as this.
Emma has a 4 year old son. Her son sometimes misbehaves when Emma takes him shopping. Emma decides to reward her son with video game time when he behaves while shopping. Her son begins to behave while shopping. Emma has successfully used this to increase her son's good behavior.
Sperling discovered that people encode letters in this manner
from left to right
When a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus this will happen.
Pavlov and Watson are associated with this type of conditioning while Skinner and Thorndike are associated with this type.
classical conditioning and operant
This is learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition
These are the three essential features of learning.
Based on experience, produces changes in the learner, and the changes are relatively permanent
This occurs when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response
Transience is useful for this reason
Training an animal to perform elaborate tricks is often accomplished using this technique
Waiting until the last minute and then cramming for a test is an example of this type of reinforcement schedule.
The practice of thinking about the meaning of information in order to have better recall for that information is called ________
When trying to remember a new word, the best thing to do is this.
to think about its meaning
A slot machine is an example of this type of reinforcement schedule
It is difficult to poison mammals but not birds because mammals are more likely to have learned this
These are the smallest meaningful units of language. They can be put together to form these, which can then be put together to form these.
morpheme - to get words- to get phrases and sentences
This predicts that our judgments will vary depending on the value we assign to possible outcomes of our decisions
rational choice theory
The phenomenon believed to cause witnesses to answer "Yes" to question like "did you see the red car" when, in fact, no red care was present is referred to as this.
The process of chunking results in increase in this.
The idea that people have a better memory for stimuli that reference sex, death, and food stems from this theory
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