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30 terms

Chapter 2 Test

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In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron.
dendrites to the cell body to the axon
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the:
action potential
When the release of ACh is blocked, the result is:
muscular paralysis
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements is called the:
motor cortex
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in:
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed
The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called:
phrenology
Which endocrine gland regulates body growth?
pituitary
The part of the cerebral cortex that directs the muscle movements involved in speech is known as:
Broca's area
The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the:
myelin sheath
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into:
the bloodstream
The occipital lobes are to ______ as the temporal lobes are to ______.
seeing; hearing
The body's speedy, electrochemical information system is called the:
nervous system
If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release _____ into your bloodstream.
epinephrine
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of:
visual perception
The most extensive regions of the brain, which enable learning and memory, are called the:
association areas
The strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of:
neural networks
Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
reticular formation
A synapse is a(n):
junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
The reticular formation is located in the:
brainstem
Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n):
lesion
Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your:
cerebral cortex
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain:
plasticity
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the:
synaptic gap
Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?
thalamus
The part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles of glands is called the:
axon
In order for you to be able to run, _____ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles.
motor neurons
The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n):
EEG
The somatic nervous system is a component of the _____ nervous system
peripheral
Nerves are neural cables containing many:
axons
Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce:
epileptic seizures