APWH Chapter 8 Self Test
Terms in this set (20)
D (Trade brought all of these changes. Moreover, it also changed consumption patterns, helped to reinforce the status of elites, and shaped the social structures of societies.)
Long-distance trade generated change between 500 and 1500 CE because
a. it motivated the creation of states in various regions of the world.
b. it affected the day-to-day working lives of many people.
c. it became the vehicle for the spread of ideas and diseases.
d. all of the above.
C (Merchants rarely traveled the full length of the Silk Roads. Instead, goods were passed down the line, changing hands many times before reaching their final destination.)
Which of the following is TRUE of the Silk Roads?
a. The Silk Roads linked the entire world into a single trade network.
b. The Silk Roads linked the large civilizations on the outer rim of the Eurasian continent but bypassed the pastoral peoples of the interior.
c. The Silk Roads were largely a relay trade route, in which goods were passed down the line rather than carried by one merchant along the entire route.
d. Although important, the Silk Roads never carried as large a volume of long-distance trade as the American network.
B (As the supply of silk increased and its many varieties circulated even more extensively across Eurasian trade routes, silk was used both as a currency and as a means of accumulating wealth along the Silk Roads of Central Asia.)
a. became such a common fabric along the Silk Roads that wearing it no longer conferred high status.
b. was used as currency and a means of accumulating wealth in Central Asia.
c. was only produced in China until 1500 CE.
d. was rejected as unholy by Buddhist monks.
A (Regions to the west of India where Zoroastrianism was practiced proved a buffer to the spread of Buddhism, largely blocking rather than facilitating Buddhism's spread.)
Which of the following was NOT a factor that facilitated the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Roads?
a. Followers of the Zoroastrian faith embraced Buddhism in large numbers.
b. Buddhist monks traveled along the Silk Roads and spread their religion.
c. Wealthy Buddhist merchants built monasteries in Silk Road towns in order to earn religious merit.
d. Foreign merchants introduced Buddhism to northern China.
D (Buddhism spread to the oasis towns through the efforts of Buddhist monks and Buddhist merchants who both practiced their faith and supported the construction of Buddhist monasteries. Conversion in the oasis cities was a voluntary process, as local residents found both the faith's teachings and its link to the larger, wealthy, and prestigious civilization of India attractive.)
As it spread along the Silk Roads, Buddhism had its earliest impact through large-scale conversion of the local population
a. in China.
b. among the pastoral peoples of Central Asia.
c. in Persia.
d. in the oasis towns of Central Asia.
C (Many local peoples living along the Silk Roads were able to incorporate their local gods into Buddhist practice as bodhisattvas.)
In regard to the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Roads
a. the monasteries founded in Central Asian oasis towns shunned all secular affairs.
b. the followers of the Buddha along the Silk Roads rejected the Mahayana form of Buddhism, instead embracing the more austere psychological teachings of the original Buddha.
c. the gods of many local peoples along the Silk Roads were incorporated into Buddhist practice.
d. Buddhist monks along the Silk Roads, unlike their counterparts in India, maintained strict vows of poverty.
C (In the Americas, the absence of domesticated animals, the less intense interaction among major centers of population, and their isolation from the Eastern hemisphere ensured that native peoples had little defense against the diseases of Eurasia. Europeans had built up immunities to these diseases through long-term contact with other peoples of Eurasia. Thus, when Europeans brought their diseases to the Western hemisphere Native American peoples died in appalling numbers in comparison to their European counterparts.)
The exchange of diseases along the Silk Roads
a. while at times deadly to both agricultural and pastoral peoples, did not alter the balance between these two peoples in Eurasia.
b. dramatically weakened the Christian church in the Byzantine Empire as followers abandoned what they perceived as an uncaring God.
c. ultimately gave Western Europeans an advantage when they confronted peoples of the Western hemisphere after 1500 who had not been exposed to the diseases of the Silk Roads.
d. all of the above.
D (Although the Atlantic Ocean ultimately hosted an important network of exchange between Western Europe, West Africa, and the Americas starting in the late 1400s, in 1450 the route was only just beginning to take shape.)
Which of the following was NOT an important Eurasian trade route before 1450?
a. The Sand Roads across the Sahara Desert
b. The Sea Roads across the Indian Ocean
c. The Silk Roads across central Asia
d. The Atlantic Ocean Roads across the eastern Atlantic between Europe and equatorial West Africa
A (Ships were able to carry more cargo than camels more cheaply, which made it possible to trade bulkier items destined for a mass market including textiles, pepper, timber, rice, sugar, and wheat along the Indian Ocean Sea Roads.)
In contrast to the Silk Roads, the Sea Roads of the Indian Ocean
a. carried more products for a mass market rather than just luxury goods.
b. had much higher transportation costs because ships cost so much more than camels.
c. did not include China in the network.
d. were centered on the ports of East Africa.
D (The Indian Ocean trade network expanded during the late classical period allowing larger amounts of goods and people, along with new ideas, to travel along its routes.)
During the first centuries CE
a. Indian Ocean trade picked up as mariners learned how to ride the monsoon winds.
b. Christianity traveled along the Indian Ocean trade routes to Kerala in southern India.
c. Chinese merchants started to trade directly in India.
d. all of the above.
D (The Tang and Song dynasties did not prohibit trade along the Silk Roads. Growth in trade along the Indian Ocean trade routes was not the result of trade displaced from the Silk Roads, but rather reflected a general growth in overall trade.)
China contributed to the growth of trade in the Indian Ocean between 500 and 1500 CE in all EXCEPT which of the following ways?
a. The Chinese state under the Tang and Song dynasties actively encouraged maritime trade.
b. The invention of the magnetic compass in China improved navigation.
c. China provided a vast and attractive market for Indian and Southeast Asian goods.
d. The Chinese state under the Tang and Song dynasties prohibited Chinese merchants from traveling along the Silk Road, effectively forcing them to trade along the Indian Ocean trade routes.
B (Muslim merchants, as well as Jews and Christians living within the Islamic world, established communities of traders from East Africa to the south China coast.)
The sudden rise of Islam in the seventh century CE had an impact on Indian Ocean commerce because
a. Islamic rulers were suspicious of merchants and sought to curtail their activities.
b. Muslim merchants and sailors established communities of traders from East Africa to the south China coast.
c. early rulers of the Arab Empire sought to promote trade within the empire by prohibiting trade by Muslim merchants beyond its borders.
d. both a and c.
B (Southeast Asian societies adopted and adapted those Indian ideas that addressed their own needs.)
Indian cultural influence in Southeast Asia
a. resulted from the political conquest of the region by Emperor Ashoka.
b. was a matter of voluntary adoption and adaptation of Indian religious, philosophical, and political ideas by independent societies that found them useful.
c. began with the travels of the Buddha to this region toward the end of his life.
d. resulted in the region rejecting the influence of Islam.
D (Like the city states of ancient Greece, each was politically independent, generally governed by its own king, and in sharp competition with other cities.)
Swahili civilization emerged
a. as an empire ruled by a single powerful king.
b. to control a choke point in the Indian Ocean trading network.
c. as a stateless state, making it unique among "third wave" civilizations.
d. as a number of rival independent city states.
B (All the states of West Africa taxed the trans-Saharan trade. For instance, at its height the rulers of Mali monopolized the import of strategic goods such as horses and metals, levied duties on salt, copper, and other merchandise, and reserved large nuggets of gold for themselves while permitting the free export of gold dust.)
All of the states that emerged in West Africa after 500 CE
a. were organized as stateless states.
b. drew upon the wealth of the trans-Saharan trade.
c. adopted and adapted either the Hindu or Buddhist faiths.
d. outlawed slavery.
D (Little evidence indicates any direct contact between the two most advanced regions of the Americas. For instance, in terms of crops, no Andean crop spread to Mesoamerica and only maize, probably acquired indirectly, spread from Mesoamerica to the Andes. )
Mesoamerica and the Andes
a. ran similar regional economies controlled by the state, which tried to suppress all private merchant activity.
b. were in close contact, creating by far the largest and most important long-distance trade network in the Americas.
c. had little to trade with each other, because both regions grew the same crops and had the same resources.
d. seem to have had little direct contact with each other.
B (The Inca Empire collected goods in great state-operated warehouses, from which they were distributed as needed around the empire.)
In which "third wave" civilization did the state largely control trade, not allowing a professional merchant class to emerge?
d. Great Zimbabwe
B (The Maya maintained substantial regional trade especially with the other regional power of the period, Teotihuacan.)
At its height, the Maya civilization traded along which of the following networks?
a. An important seaborne trade network with South American Andean civilizations that distributed exotic luxury goods that served to uphold the position and privileges of nobles and rulers
b. A land-based trade with the great city state of Teotihuacan in central Mexico
c. A land-based trade network with the Aztecs
d. Both a and b
D (The Americas lacked both wheeled vehicles and oceanic vessels to facilitate transport. Moreover, the thin Isthmus of Panama, covered in dense rainforest, served as a difficult choke point inhibiting long-distance trade between North and South America.)
Despite other difficulties, long-distance trade in the Americas was facilitated by
a. wheeled vehicles.
b. oceanic vessels.
c. the isthmus of Panama.
d. none of the above.
B (The expansion of the Chinese empire in response to the Xiongnu threat resulted in the Chinese Empire conquering territories that brought its borders much closer to those of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire and later Parthian and Persian states.)
The emergence of the Silk Roads was facilitated by
a. the collapse of the Indian Ocean trade network.
b. the expansion of China into Central Asia during the Han dynasty in an effort to control the nomadic Xiongnu.
c. the emergence of the Swahili civilization, which provided security for merchants and travelers along the eastern stretches of the Silk Roads.
d. all of the above.
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