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Terms in this set (140)
Ensuring that the results of an evaluation produces valid and reliable findings meets which standard of evaluation in the CDC Framework
A school district requires that all research and evaluation activities be approved. This is to ensure that there are no potential risks to students or teachers, and that the research or evaluation activities do not interfere with normal class activities. A group of school officials meet monthly to review any proposed research or evaluation activities. This group is an example of a(n):
Human Subjects Committee
Utility, feasibility, propriety, and accuracy are
Standards of evaluation within the framework for program evaluation
Determines the effect of a program on the intended population
The hallmark of human subjects research
This type of evaluation focuses on the ultimate goal or product of a program, and is generally measured by mobility and mortality data.
The most common design used for evaluations of health promotion programs is the
Pretest-posttest quasi experimental design
Testing specific components of a program, service, or products with the priority population prior to implementation of the comprehensive program is known as
Dignan (1995) identified four steps in choosing an evaluation design. In this step, the type of data collection, data analyses, and methods of reporting data results are determined.
An evaluation team wants to know how many pedometers were distributed as part of a worksite physical activity program. Which element of a process evaluation is this an example of?
This design study offers the greatest control over confounding variables that may influence evaluation results.
This type of variable is also known as outcome variables
Determining whether or not a program led to changes in health status is an example of
Which type of evaluation employs pretesting program components?
As part of a formative evaluation of a physical activity program for older adults, Kristen's evaluation team decides to conduct focus groups with participants. The results of these discussions indicate that participants do not like the aerobic class they are taking part in and would prefer to do water aerobics instead. Kristen reports these findings and suggests that these modifications be made based on participant feedback and to increase adherence to the program. Which element of a formative evaluation plan is this an example of?
This standard of the CDC Framework ensures that the evaluation produces findings that are considered correct
Mark and his evaluation team are developing a logic model to describe the program they are evaluating. According to the CDC Framework, they are in which stage?
Describe the Program
A community health program is looking to deliver a binge drinking prevention program for teenagers. They have limited funds to develop, deliver, and evaluate the program. They are currently looking at different interventions available to compare costs and determine which intervention would be the least expensive. This is an example of
When individuals cannot be randomly assigned to an experimental or control group, this nonequivalent group may be formed.
Which type of evaluation assesses behavior change?
The degree to which a program, activity, or service is tailored to the priority population
The presence of any confounding factors in the environment that may affect program participation or results
Which of the following is NOT an example of an element of process evaluation
Bar or line chart that displays a program's timeline or project schedule
As part of an evaluation of a community's recreational environment to support healthier lifestyles through physical activity, John's evaluation team is collecting data of several factors of the built environment including the availability of walking and biking paths, availability of free indoor/outdoor recreational facilities, and a number of free recreational classes offered. Which element of a formative evaluation plan is this an example of?
These entities serve to safeguard the rights, privacy, health, and well-being of those involved in research or evaluation activities.
Institutional Review Board
Methodological triangulation refers to
Both qualitative and quantitative data
Assessing the extent to which a program is being implemented as planned is done during a(n)
An innovative nutrition curriculum was implemented in a 6th grade health class. Students were administered a pretest assessing their current knowledge of nutrition information. A six-week course focusing on nutrition components was then delivered. At the completion of the program, students were given a posttest assessing their knowledge. An analysis of results revealed that students significantly increased their knowledge on most of the nutrition components. This is an example of what type of evaluation results?
An employer decides to participate in a worksite wellness program to decrease the incidence of low back injuries. The employer mandates that all individuals working at the company participate in the program, and that anyone who decides to withdrawal from the program will receive a reduction in pay. This example violates which basic ethical principle?
In determining whether an online weight loss program was effective, several measurements of body mass index (BMI) were collected prior to, during, and after program implementation. The collection of BMI data is a measure of
Outcome evaluation data
Formative evaluation is associated with assessing the ---------------- of a health program, while summative evaluation focuses on measuring the ---------------- of the program.
The two evaluation categories in which health education specialists engage in can be classified as
Formative and summative
One strength of having an external evaluator is
The number of people who stopped smoking as a result of a smoking cessation program is a measure of
Which of the following is NOT considered a critical purpose for program evaluation?
Which of the following people is NOT a stakeholder?
-Representative from the funding source
The degree to which multiple components (i.e. intervention strategies) are built into a health promotion program is known as
A(n) ---------------- is conducted at the end of the program to provide conclusive statements regarding the effectiveness of a program.
Measures of awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors are examples of outcome evaluation data
Feasibility standards of the CDC Framework ensures that information needs of evaluation users are satisfied.
During formative evaluation the effectiveness of a program is evaluated.
The fifth step of the CDC Framework focuses on the use and dissemination of evaluation results.
The extent to which a program was delivered as planned is known as validity.
Experimental studies offer the greatest control over confounding variables that may influence evaluation results.
Summative evaluation activities often includes pretesting program components and/or pilot testing the health program to a small sample of the population prior to large scale implementation.
Informed consent is an ongoing process between researchers and research participants.
The Nuremberg Code was issued after the Tuskegee Syphilis Study ended.
Formative and process evaluations are generally conducted by internal evaluators.
It is more important for a survey to be valid than reliable.
Qualitative methods of data collection are inductive in nature and produce narrative data
The accuracy standard of the CDC Framework ensures that the evaluation is viable and pragmatic.
In formative and process evaluations, reach refers to the proportion of the priority population actually participating in the program.
Pilot testing involves collecting baseline data prior to the program implementation that will be compared with posttest data to measure the effectiveness of the program.
One barrier to effective program evaluation is the amount of time allocated for evaluation.
Evaluation planning should begin during the preplanning stages of program development.
A reason a stakeholder may want a program evaluated is to inform policy decisions.
The quantitative approach is inductive.
Propriety standards ensure than an evaluation is ethical.
Dependent variables are also known as the manipulated variables.
The Institutional Review Board represents the hallmark of human subject research.
Data reflecting the initial status or interest of the participant are referred to as baseline data.
Field testing is also known as pretesting.
List and describe the 4 major components of a logic model.
- Resources/Inputs (things that enable the program to take place - time, money, staff, facilities, etc.)
-Activities (all events or activities included in the program - class, educational session, survey, etc.)
-Outputs (product of activities. Ex. students participating in crops to campus program)
Short term/impact (more knowledgable, change in behavior)
Long term/outcome (decrease in disease/death rates)
Several problems or barriers to effective evaluation have been identified. Your textbook lists 12 of the more common problems.
Control or comparison group is seen as an underdog and is motivated to work harder
Change in measurement between pretest and posttest, such as the researchers becoming more familiar with or skill in the use of the testing format over time
Reflects the differences in the experimental and comparison groups, and is usually due to lack of randomization
Occurs when unanticipated events happen between the pretest and posttest that are not part of the health promotion program being evaluated
Occurs when extremely high or low scores (which are not necessarily accurate) on the pretest naturally move closer to the mean or average on the posttest
Results when participants in the control or comparison group interact and learn from participants in the experimental group
Occurs when participants in the program show pretest-to-posttest differences due to growing older, wiser, or stronger as a function of time
Refers to participants who drop out of the program between pretest and posttest
Occurs when participants become familiar with the test format due to repeated testing
The most significant way in which threats to internal validity can be controlled is through
Includes the organization, coding, and cleaning of data
Hypothesis that holds there are no observed differences between groups
Type of analysis in which two variables are analyzed
Measures the meaningfulness of a program
The most commonly used type of data analyses used in health promotion evaluation
Variable that is manipulated or controlled
Occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true
Type I error
Type of statistics that test relationships between variables
Attaching meaning to the analyzed data and drawing conclusions
In an evaluation report, this section is the most critical component of the report.
The results section of an evaluation report includes the limitations of the evaluation study.
The ----------------- of an evaluation report is sometimes the only section that is read by stakeholders.
The ----------------- section of an evaluation report provides answers to the evaluation questions.
This section of an evaluation report provides rationale for why the evaluation was done.
All of the following elements are included in the Methods section of an evaluation report EXCEPT:
-Validity of instrumentation
-Data analyses procedures
This section of an evaluation report includes program recommendations.
This type of resource analysis compares the cost of different interventions.
This is the extent to which program staff have adequate knowledge and skills to design and implement a health promotion program.
This is the degree to which health promotion programs are adapted to the needs of the target population.
This represents the degree to which a health promotion program is modified based on participant feedback.
This represents the proportion of the priority population actually participating in a health promotion program.
Changes in behavior, knowledge, attitudes, and skill represent this type of evaluation.
This comprehensive evaluation is conducted to determine effectiveness of health promotion programs.
This type of evaluation is conducted while the health promotion program is being formed.
This type of evaluation is concerned with assessing fidelity.
This type of evaluation often uses morbidity or mortality data to determine the overall effects of a health promotion program.
These are the 3 primary principles of the Belmont Report.
Respect, Beneficence, and Justice
This ethical principle emphasizes "Do No Harm"
These entities serve to formally approve, monitor, and review any type of research or evaluation.
Institutional Review Boards or Human Subjects Committees
These 4 ethical guidelines represent the backbone for evaluation research.
Utility, Feasibility, Propriety, and Accuracy
In this step of the CDC Framework, a Logic Model is used.
Step 2, Describe the Program
In this step of the CDC Framework, the logistics for collecting data is described.
Step 4, Gathering Credible Evidence
These are the 3 primary groups of stakeholders
- Those involved with program operations
- Those served or affected by the program
- Primary users of results
This step of the CDC Framework determines if the evaluation design is going to be experimental, quasi-experimental, or non-experimental.
Step 3, Focusing the Evaluation Design
In this step of the CDC Framework, the evaluation feedback loop is used to disseminate evaluation results.
Step 6, Ensuring Use and Sharing Lessons Learned
In this step of selecting a summative evaluation design, the dependent and independent variables are identified.
Step 2, Defining the Problem
This research group receives the treatment or intervention.
This type of measurement is done after the completion of a health promotion program.
This type of research design is the most commonly used design in health promotion research.
Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design
This type of evaluation design uses random assignment.
This ethical standard ensures that the evaluation provides relevant and timely information.
For survey research, this determines the consistency of what is measured.
Familiarity with the program is a primary advantage of having this type of evaluator conduct an assessment.
This type of research explores insight into human behavior and is inductive in nature.
These types of codes are predetermined by researchers prior to starting qualitative analysis.
a priori codes
The degree to which programs, services, or activities are modified based on feedback received from participants, partners, or other stakeholders
Degree to which a program, service, or activity is approved by relevant stakeholders and justified by needs assessment data and analysis
Closely related to resources, this type of cost analysis is used to quantify the effects of a program in monetary terms
The proportion of the priority population given the opportunity to participate in the program, activity, or service
The logic model is developed in this stage of the CDC Framework
Step 2, Describe the Program
In this stage of the Framework, the evaluation is described as being experimental, quasi-experimental, or non-experimental
Step 3, Focus the Evaluation Design
As one of the four standards in the CDC Framework, this standard ensures that the evaluation is ethically sound
The five elements of design, preparation, feedback, follow-up, and dissemination are essential to this step of the CDC Framework
Step 6, Ensure Use and Share Lessons Learned
These are the three primary groups of stakeholders identified in Step 1 of the CDC Framework
-Those involved with the program
-Those served or affected by the program
-Primary users of the results
This type of statistics is used to organize, summarize, and describe characteristics of a group
Measures of central tendency, such as mean, median, and mode, are forms of this type of data analyses
This refers to whether the observed differences between two or more groups are real or not or whether they are due to chance occurrences
This states that a difference exists between two groups
This type of multivariate analyses is the most common statistical test used in health promotion evaluation
This type of validity refers to generalizability of evaluation results
This is the extent to which the program, activity, or service was delivered as planned and is a major element of process evaluations
This is also known as field testing or "dry runs"
This section of an evaluation report provides the answers to the evaluation questions
This section of an evaluation report discusses the limitations of the evaluation
In this type of study, the type of group participants are in is not known by the participants, program planners, or evaluators
Triple blind study
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Elements of a Comprehensive Formative Evaluation
Elements of a Process Evaluation
Procedures Used In Formative Evaluation
4 Steps in Selecting an Evaluation Design
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