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Pediatrics Exam #2
Terms in this set (71)
What are the 8 major areas that should be considered when looking at factors affecting activity limitations?
1. Posture & Alignment
2. Movement of Body/Balance
3. Movement of Body Parts/Patterns
4. Physical Impairments
6. Cognition/Motor Learning/Planning
7. Environmental & Task Factors
8. Personal Factors
What method used for measuring the degree of scoliosis utilizes extended lines from the most cephalad vertebra of the curve and the most caudal vertebra?
How is the direction of a scoliotic curve determined?
By the side of the convexity of the curve
_______% of scoliotic curves are curved to the right.
What form of scoliosis occurs with a lateral curvature of the spine of unknown cause?
What is the most common form of scoliosis in children?
What are the 3 types of idiopathic scoliosis?
What age range is affected by infantile idiopathic scoliosis?
Children younger than 3
What age range is affected by juvenile idiopathic scoliosis?
3-9 years old
What age range is affected by adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?
What scoliotic term is defined as a sustained increase in scoliotic curvature of 5 degrees or more on two consecutive examinations at 4 to 6 months intervals?
What type of scoliotic curves are caused by anomalous vertebral development in utero?
Orthotic use for scoliotic curves depends on what 3 things?
1. Curve Type
Orthotics are typically prescribed for children with idiopathic scoliosis with a curve from ____ to ____ degrees.
25 to 45 degrees
What is a major indication for surgical intervention for a scoliotic curve?
Cobb Angle that reaches 45 degrees or greater in immature spine
What is the "Gold Standard" for surgical management in patients with idiopathic scoliosis?
Posterior Spinal Fusion w/ Instrumentation
Following a spinal fusion, what motion is contraindicated?
What type of scoliosis has an onset at an earlier age, is associated with systemic/chronic diseases, and often has a rapid progression?
What spinal condition is a rigid form of postural kyphosis, develops during childhood/adolescence, is usually ascribed to poor posture, and is typically seen with wedging of vertebrae?
What are 3 parts of treatment for Scheurmann's Disease?
1. Exercise (Trunk Extensor strengthening, posture, hamstring stretching)
What spinal condition is the forward translatory displacement of one vertebra on another, usually occurring at the 5th lumbar vertebra?
If the femoral head lies anterior to the frontal plane, what is this called?
If the femoral head lies less than 10-12 degrees anterior to the frontal plane, what is this called?
If forefoot is curved medially, hindfoot is in the normal slight valgus position, and full dorsiflexion ROM is noted, what is this called?
What foot condition occurs with forefoot adductus, hindfoot varus, and ankle equinus?
What are the 3 components of the torsional profile that may contribute to in-toeing?
1. Femoral Anteversion
2. Internal Tibial Torsion
3. Metatarsus Adductus
What are the 3 components of the torsional profile that may contribute to out-toeing?
1. External Rotation Contractures of Hip
2. External Tibial Torsion
What hip test is performed by flexing and abducting the hip, then gradually adducted and pressure exerted in a posterior direction, and tests for hip instability?
What hip test is performed by flexing the hips and knees of a supine infant to 90 degrees, then using the index fingers placing anterior pressure on the greater trochanters, gently and smoothly abducting the infant's legs using the examiner's thumbs?
What is the protocol for a child from birth-9 months with Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?
What is the protocol for a child from 9 months and older with Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?
What is the protocol for a child 2 years old with Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?
What is the protocol for a child 3 years old with Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?
Femoral Shortening Procedure or Acetabular Reshaping Osteotomy
What condition is an infection in the bone caused by bacteria spread through the bloodstream or open wound?
What condition is an infection of a joint caused by bacteria from sexual activity by teens or mothers during birth?
What condition occurs when blood supply is temporarily interrupted to the ball part (femoral head) of the hip joint and without sufficient blood flow, the bone begins to die,and breaks more easily and heals poorly?
What condition occurs when the growth plate of the proximal femoral physis is weak and becomes displaced from its normal position, and symptoms include groin to thigh and knee pain, antalgic gait, limited IR and flexion?
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
What is meant by "idiopathic toe-walking"?
Persistent toe walking
How is idiopathic toe-walking treated?
Stretch gastroc/soleus while strengthening ankle DF
What condition is characterized by abnormal growth and remodeling of cartilage and bone?
What technique uses a type of external fixation used in orthopedic surgery to lengthen or reshape limb bones and as a limb-sparing technique to treat complex and/or open bone fractures?
What medical problem contributes to the hearing loss in the Down Syndrome population?
Why are children with Down Syndrome at risk for atlanto-axial dislocation?
Laxity of the Transverse Odontoid Ligament causes excess motion of C1 & C2
What are 4 early symptoms of Atlanto-Axial Dislocation?
1. Gait Changes
2. Urinary Retention
4. Reluctance to Move
The degree of __________________ is a significant factor in children with Down Syndrome.
What evaluation tool is suggest for examining qualitative aspects of movement in infants with Down Syndrome?
Movement Assessment of Infants (MAI)
What 4 components are evaluated in the Movement Assessment of Infants (MAI)?
1. Postural Tone
2. Primitive Reflexes
3. Automatic Reactions
4. Volitional Movement
What are the 5 valued life-outcomes?
1. Having a safe, stable home in which to live now or in the future
2. Having access to a variety of places and engaging in meaningful activities
3. Having a social network of personally meaningful relationships
4. Having a level or personal choice and control that matches ones
5. Being safety and healthy
What measure was designed as an individualized measure of performance and satisfaction in self-care, productivity, and leisure?
Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM)
What measure uses a questionnaire format to help children rate their competence in everyday tasks and to select goals important to them?
Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS)
What term is based on the assumptions that behaviors are learned through interactions with social, physical, and biologic environments?
What are the 5 behavioral objectives?
1. Who will do
3. Under what condition
4. How well
5. By When
What condition occurs when the posture of the head and neck from unilateral shortening of the SCM causing head to tilt toward and rotate away from the affected SCM muscle?
Congenital Muscular Torticollis
Children with Congenital Muscular Torticollis are at a high risk of developing what other condition?
What are 7 risk factors for Congenital Muscular Torticollis and Plagiocephaly?
1. Difficult labor/delivery
2. Breech positioning
3. Presence of Nucal Cord
4. Male Gender
5. Vacuum or Forceps Delivery
6. Uterine Abnormalities
7. Multiple Births
How often is stretching recommended for children with Congenital Muscular Torticollis?
Twice daily, 5x10 second holds
What product is a beanie used for head repositioning to prevent flat head syndrome and plagiocephaly?
What ages are tortles appropriate for?
Brachial Plexus Injuries (BPI) most often occur during what process?
Difficult vaginal delivery
Axon regrowth recovery usually takes ___to___ months in the upper arm.
4 to 6 months
Axon regrowth recovery usually takes ___to___ months in the lower arm.
7 to 9 months
Continued axon regrowth recovery can take up to ___ years in the upper arm.
Continued axon regrowth recovery can take up to ___ years in the lower arm.
What are the 3 types of Brachial Plexus Injuries?
1. Erb's Palsy
2. Klumpe's Palsy
3. Erb-Klumpe Palsy
What type of BPI is described as: affects upper roots (C5/C6), paralysis of major muscles, and arm held in "waiter's tip" position?
What type of BPI is described as: affects lower roots (C7-T1), resting position in forearm supination, paralysis of wrist flexors/extensors, intrinsic wrist/hand muscles?
What type of BPI is described as: affects upper and lower roots (C5-T1), initial total arm paralysis, and total paralysis limited mostly to upper roots?
How long is the initial rest period following Brachial Plexus Injuries?
Why is an initial rest period required following Brachial Plexus Injuries?
To allow edema and hemorrhaging to subside
Why is splinting used in Brachial Plexus Injuries?
To preserve tendons until motor function returns and to prevent contractures
When is surgery considered for children with Brachial Plexus Injuries?
Children who continue w/ significant impairments and activity limitations while no longer showing improvement
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