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Midterm rev. ch 1-13

Many artists use their work to criticize or manipulate


Professional art critics follow one or more of three basic theories, these include

formal, expressive, contextual.

The Dish from _______ illustrates the function of art in daily life as both utilitarian object and religious inspiration. The embellishments on the plate include Arabic writing of Muslim scripture.


This artist, who made Rocket to the Moon, paid tribute to the richness of the African-American experience through art.

Romare Bearden

To evaluate a work of art properly, we must deal with it in the context of:

the society that produced it

Traditional Chinese criticism declared that artists should try to go beyond _______ of the subject matter.


Global Warning, the graphic design poster by Chaz Maviyane-Davies, presents an issue of concern for the artist as well as the global population. This work is an example of art as a vehicle for:


The term _____________________ refers to making discriminating judgments, both favorable and unfavorable.

art criticism

A _______ is a particular material, along with its accompanying technique


Art criticism involves making _______, both favorable and unfavorable.


Art made with a combination of different materials, such as a collage, is referred to as:

mixed media

Evaluation of Art is always _______.


When we look at a work of art and we are pleased or displeased is is useful to ask

why, what are we looking for"

Professional art critics follow one or more of three basic theories

formal theories, contextual theories, and expressive theories

One way to have a positive experience in a museum is to

research the museum collection in advance and make a selection of what to see before you go.

Not all art is meant to

express the personality of the maker.

Rembrandt was obsessed with the expressive possibilities of the human body. As a result he created and extensive collection of works using

himself as a model because he was the most readily available

Romare Bearden created his works of art using a technique made famous by Picasso. This technique is known as

collage on board

The arts have a/an ___________________ component in many societies to aid in ceremonial practices and contemplation.


In _______ balance, the two sides of a composition on either side of an imaginary vertical dividing line correspond to one another in size, shape, and placement of form.


In his image Untitled Keith Haring has used _______ colors.


Raphael's The School of Athens provides the viewer with the illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface by the use of:

linear perspective

Repetition of similar elements in a work of art creates the illusion of:


The juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements is referred to as


The phenomenon when positive and negative space change places, as seen in M.C. Escher's Sky and Water I woodcut print, is called:

figure-ground reversal

The term "format" refers to the size and shape of a _______ picture plane.


The term "value," in the sense of art, refers to the:

lightness and darkness of surfaces

The term for purity, brilliance, or saturation, of a color is:


is the appearance or condition of oneness in a work of art.


Going Home illustrates this artist's skillful use of abstraction, unity and variety.

Jacob Lawrence

Jack-in-the-Pulpit No. V is typical in style and content of the artist:

Georgia O'Keeffe

Claus Oldenburg's and Coosje van Bruggen's art, as seen in Shuttlecocks, affects us immediately by its:


In The Kiss, the artist Rodin expressed the _______ of love, while the artist Brancusi expressed the ---- of love

feeling; idea

Objective or figurative art is considered:

representational art

The method of creating the illusion of depth on a 2-D surface through the appearance of converging parallel lines and one or more vanishing points is called _______.

linear perspective

The organization of visual elements in a work of art is referred to as _______.

the composition

The realistic manner in which William Harnett painted A Smoke Backstage is called

trompe l'oeil

The result of the process of arranging, selecting and ordering is called the:


The symbolic meaning of visual signs and imagery is called:


A type of painting utilizing egg yolk as a binder is _______.


A type of painting utilizing plaster as a medium is _______.


At various stages in the printmaking process, artists make what are called _______ to check on the developing image.


Engraving, etching and _______ are intaglio processes.


In buon fresco the pigments, combined with water, are applied to _______.

wet plaster

Lithography is a surface or _______ printing process.


The _______ cut is a modern development in relief printing.


Which of the following is a type of relief printing?

wood engraving

Madonna and Child with the Chancellor Rolin, by the Flemish artist Jan van Eyck, is an excellent example of a(n) _______ painting.

oil and tempera

Sharecropper by Elizabeth Catlett is an example of:

a linoleum cut

A very thin, transparent film of color painted over an already-painted surface is called


A(n) _______ work of art is one in which an artist is physically involved with the production of the work of art.


American artist and illustrator _______ is best known for his watercolors, such as Sloop, Nassau.

Winslow Homer

In which of the following media does the artist draw an image with a greasy crayon directly on a flat stone slab?


Large paintings done in this technique require that the artist finish sections completely before they move to a newly prepared area.


Opaque watercolor is sometimes called:


Original prints are produced in quantities called

limited editions

The Chinese believe that painting is derived from the art of:


The fraction that appears in the center of a print below the image is referred to as the ______number


The poster Jane Avril Jardin de Paris, which was created using the lithographic process, was made by this French artist.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

An identifying mark or trademark is referred to as a(n) _______.


Edward Muybridge is best known for photographing people and animals in:


Film depends on a phenomenon called _______ in which the human brain retains a visual image for a fraction of a second longer than the human eye records, making everything we see continuous and uninterrupted.

persistence of vision

One of the earliest forms of photographic images was a:


Perfecting the photographic process, Louis Daguerre was able to include _______ in his photographs, as seen in his 1839 photo Le Boulevard du Temple.


The art of composing printed material from letterforms is called:


The device invented in the 16th century as a means of capturing and fixing images from the natural world whose name means "dark room" is:

camera obscura

The work Absolute Power is typical of the designer:

Chaz Maviyane-Davies

_______ was an early advocate of photography as an art form. He/she opened a gallery in New York City in 1905.


A(n) _______ is a picture or decoration created to enhance displayed written material, inform the public and catch the viewer's eye.


A promoter of environmentalism and social problems, this artist is known primarily for photographs of the natural environment, such as Clearing Winter Storm, Yosemite National Park, California.

Ansel Adams

An illustration is commonly used alongside:

written material

In filmmaking, each unbroken sequence of movie frames, with the camera still rolling, is called a:


Many contemporary photographers use new _______ technology, exemplified by Andreas Gursky's Statesville, Illinois.


The method of photography that first allowed families in the United States and Europe to collect photos of themselves was:


This artist is best known for expanding the traditional limitations of artistic media by incorporating video and electronic media into his/her artwork, as can be seen in Video Flag Z.

Nam June Paik

This photographer of Atop the Chrysler Building was associated with Life magazine.

Margaret Bourke-White

This still from Oskar Fischinger's film Circles is considered to be the first

experimental film

_______ invented the Polaroid camera.

Edwin Land

_______ is credited with introducing the concept of the photo essay.


According to experts' contemporary theory, Stonehenge was possibly created to:

all ; solar lunar etc

During the Neolithic period, art went from:

natralistic to abstract

The Wall Painting of Animals is located in south central France at:

Chauvet Cave

The Mesopotamians built their temples, such as that of Ur-Nammu, on this type of structure, called:


The ancient Sumerians developed the world's first wheel, plow and

writing system

The image Woman (Venus) of Willendorf is thought to be associated with:

the Great Mother Goddess

The sizing of figures as determined by social rank is called:

hierarchic scale

The word "Neolithic" means:

New stone age

Two million years ago, the first stone tools enabled our ancestors to:

gain some control over their relationship to their surroundings

_______________, the best-known Egyptian ruler, has the only royal tomb discovered in modern times with most of the contents intact.


The vessel Earthenware Beaker is from the _______ period.

New Stone Age

The term petroglyph refers to

rock art carvings

These kinds of objects found in ancient graves indicated a ritual burial practice.

embalmed bodies of royalty, artifacts, tools and furniture

The stylistic characteristics of ancient Egyptian art changed relatively little over time because of

lack of accessibility due to the Nile dessert on both sides of the Nile River.

Tutankhamen the best-known pharaoh today due to

the discovery of his royal tomb in modern times

Stonhenge, a neolithic structure in England, was built

in layers over more than a millennium

As a part of the Mesopotamian culture, _________________________, were built to link the heavens and the earth.


Hierachic scale illustrates

social rank, the largest being the most important.

This three dimensional work of art titled Head of an Akkadian Ruler, portrays

the image of an absolute monarch.

The earliest major civilizations were those in four fertile river valleys. They are the

Tigris, Euphrates, Nile and Indus rivers.

Head of an Old Man is an example of sculpture from the _______ portrait tradition.


Byzantine Emperor Leo ordered the destruction of all images of Christ, Mary, the saints and the angels to discourage ___________________.

the worship of the images as opposed to the divine being.

Early Christian Art was created in private homes and underground burial chambers called:


Early Christian churches were built with a/an ________________, their plain exteriors gave no hint as to what was to be seen within.

inward focus

One feature that set Gothic architecture apart from Romanesque was the extensive use of:

stained glass

The Parthenon was designed to honor:


The Purse Cover from the Sutton Hoo ship burial illustrates one distinguishing characteristic of the art of migrating peoples of the Middle Ages that is based on:


The first Christian churches were patterned after Roman basilicas used by the Romans as:

government buildings

The first large sculpture since Roman times can be found _______ in Romanesque churches.

over the central doorway

_______ is an excellent example of Gothic architecture.

Chartres Cathedral

Greek sculptors were famous for their figures known as "kore" and "kouros." These figures represented

freestanding statues of a nude male and a clothed female.

The Iconoclastic Controversy was a tumultuous period during the Byzantine empire. Emperor Leo III ordered the desctruction of all images of Christ, Mary, the saints and the angels. The reasoning behind this was

the emperor and his party believed these images encouraged idolatry, worship of the image, rather than worship of the divine being.

The three different periods in Greek art are known as

Classical, Archaic and Hellenistic

The Roman Colosseum was built between 68 and 80 C.E., with the intention of it being used as a/an

place of amusement for the Roman rulers and citizens.

The Pantheon was built by ________________, and it was intended as a/an ______________________ for it's function?

Romans; major temple to all the gods

Greek architectural orders have become a standard for architectural design through the ages. The image below is and example of _______________ order.


The style of art produced during the end of the 4th century B.C.E. is called _______________________. This style is considered more dynamic and less idealized of other styles of Greek art.


The Acropolis in the city-state of Athens is the home of several sacred buildings. The most prominent of these buildings is the ______________________ and is dedicated to the god/goddess ___________________.

Parthenon; Athena

The Greek focus on ________________ and ___________________ led to the development of democracy and naturalistic human figures in art.

human potential; achievement

Greek sculptors were known for their close adaptation of life-like figures. One of the most commonly used techniques is known as _________________, which refers to a shift of weight in the figure's pose.


The Holy Trinity fresco, by Masaccio, is considered to be the first painting based on the use of:

linear perspective

Caravaggio's dramatic portrayal of scenes at night, as seen in The Conversion of Saint Paul, was called:


In Jan van Eyck's The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami, the woman is wearing green because:

it symbolized fertility

In the Netherlands, the major patrons of such artists as Vermeer and Rembrandt were:

the middle and upper classes

Leonardo da Vinci's technique of blurred edges, called _______, can be seen in his Mona Lisa.


Many Baroque characteristics developed as propaganda for the:

Counter Reformation

Many Renaissance artists benefited from the patronage of the _______ family.


Michelangelo's David has a pose influenced by the sculpture of the ancient:


Rococo paintings mainly showed:

life without troubles

The first woman to gain widespread notoriety as an artist in the Renaissance was:

Sofonisba Anguissola

Bernini's The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa is an excellent example of the style known as Baroque. The elements of the Baroque style Bernini used are

moment of greatest feeling, spiritual passion and departure from the naturalistic style.

Women artists from the Middle Ages onward faced many difficulties, some of these issues include

negative attitudes of families and patrons toward female artists.

The three cities where High Renaissance art flourished include

Florence, Rome and Venice

What was the significance of linear perspective for Renaissance artists?

This applied use of geometry brought a more realistic illusion of implied space to their paintings.

What was the primary subject matter for Rococo artists?

portrayal of the aristocratic lifestyle of ease, gaiety and carefree activities.

The Renaissance period of art is considered one of the most significant periods in art history. The term Renaissance means


Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini Portrait makes use of ordinary object portraying spiritual significance. These objects include


Masaccio used linear perspective in the Trinity with the Virgin to create the illusion

of a deep barrel vault extending behind the figures of the Trinity.

Leonardo da Vinci, a significant figure during the Renaissance period, believed __________________________________.

art and science are two means to the same end: knowledge

Donatello's David is a significant work of sculpture because

it is the first life-size, freestanding nude statue since ancient Roman times.

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