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139 terms

Prebles' Artforms 8th Ed.

Midterm rev. ch 1-13
STUDY
PLAY
Many artists use their work to criticize or manipulate
PUBLIC OPINION
Professional art critics follow one or more of three basic theories, these include
formal, expressive, contextual.
The Dish from _______ illustrates the function of art in daily life as both utilitarian object and religious inspiration. The embellishments on the plate include Arabic writing of Muslim scripture.
Iran
This artist, who made Rocket to the Moon, paid tribute to the richness of the African-American experience through art.
Romare Bearden
To evaluate a work of art properly, we must deal with it in the context of:
the society that produced it
Traditional Chinese criticism declared that artists should try to go beyond _______ of the subject matter.
representation
Global Warning, the graphic design poster by Chaz Maviyane-Davies, presents an issue of concern for the artist as well as the global population. This work is an example of art as a vehicle for:
all
The term _____________________ refers to making discriminating judgments, both favorable and unfavorable.
art criticism
A _______ is a particular material, along with its accompanying technique
medium
Art criticism involves making _______, both favorable and unfavorable.
judgements
Art made with a combination of different materials, such as a collage, is referred to as:
mixed media
Evaluation of Art is always _______.
subjective
When we look at a work of art and we are pleased or displeased is is useful to ask
why, what are we looking for"
Professional art critics follow one or more of three basic theories
formal theories, contextual theories, and expressive theories
One way to have a positive experience in a museum is to
research the museum collection in advance and make a selection of what to see before you go.
Not all art is meant to
express the personality of the maker.
Rembrandt was obsessed with the expressive possibilities of the human body. As a result he created and extensive collection of works using
himself as a model because he was the most readily available
Romare Bearden created his works of art using a technique made famous by Picasso. This technique is known as
collage on board
The arts have a/an ___________________ component in many societies to aid in ceremonial practices and contemplation.
spiritual
In _______ balance, the two sides of a composition on either side of an imaginary vertical dividing line correspond to one another in size, shape, and placement of form.
symmetrical
In his image Untitled Keith Haring has used _______ colors.
complementary
Raphael's The School of Athens provides the viewer with the illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface by the use of:
linear perspective
Repetition of similar elements in a work of art creates the illusion of:
rhythm
The juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements is referred to as
contrast
The phenomenon when positive and negative space change places, as seen in M.C. Escher's Sky and Water I woodcut print, is called:
figure-ground reversal
The term "format" refers to the size and shape of a _______ picture plane.
two-dimensional
The term "value," in the sense of art, refers to the:
lightness and darkness of surfaces
The term for purity, brilliance, or saturation, of a color is:
intensity
is the appearance or condition of oneness in a work of art.
Unity
Going Home illustrates this artist's skillful use of abstraction, unity and variety.
Jacob Lawrence
Jack-in-the-Pulpit No. V is typical in style and content of the artist:
Georgia O'Keeffe
Claus Oldenburg's and Coosje van Bruggen's art, as seen in Shuttlecocks, affects us immediately by its:
scale
In The Kiss, the artist Rodin expressed the _______ of love, while the artist Brancusi expressed the ---- of love
feeling; idea
Objective or figurative art is considered:
representational art
The method of creating the illusion of depth on a 2-D surface through the appearance of converging parallel lines and one or more vanishing points is called _______.
linear perspective
The organization of visual elements in a work of art is referred to as _______.
the composition
The realistic manner in which William Harnett painted A Smoke Backstage is called
trompe l'oeil
The result of the process of arranging, selecting and ordering is called the:
design
The symbolic meaning of visual signs and imagery is called:
iconography
A type of painting utilizing egg yolk as a binder is _______.
tempera
A type of painting utilizing plaster as a medium is _______.
fresco
At various stages in the printmaking process, artists make what are called _______ to check on the developing image.
proofs
Engraving, etching and _______ are intaglio processes.
drypoint
In buon fresco the pigments, combined with water, are applied to _______.
wet plaster
Lithography is a surface or _______ printing process.
planographic
The _______ cut is a modern development in relief printing.
linoleum
Which of the following is a type of relief printing?
wood engraving
Madonna and Child with the Chancellor Rolin, by the Flemish artist Jan van Eyck, is an excellent example of a(n) _______ painting.
oil and tempera
Sharecropper by Elizabeth Catlett is an example of:
a linoleum cut
A very thin, transparent film of color painted over an already-painted surface is called
glaze
A(n) _______ work of art is one in which an artist is physically involved with the production of the work of art.
original
American artist and illustrator _______ is best known for his watercolors, such as Sloop, Nassau.
Winslow Homer
In which of the following media does the artist draw an image with a greasy crayon directly on a flat stone slab?
lithography
Large paintings done in this technique require that the artist finish sections completely before they move to a newly prepared area.
fresco
Opaque watercolor is sometimes called:
gouache
Original prints are produced in quantities called
limited editions
The Chinese believe that painting is derived from the art of:
calligraphy
The fraction that appears in the center of a print below the image is referred to as the ______number
edition
The poster Jane Avril Jardin de Paris, which was created using the lithographic process, was made by this French artist.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
An identifying mark or trademark is referred to as a(n) _______.
logo
Edward Muybridge is best known for photographing people and animals in:
motion
Film depends on a phenomenon called _______ in which the human brain retains a visual image for a fraction of a second longer than the human eye records, making everything we see continuous and uninterrupted.
persistence of vision
One of the earliest forms of photographic images was a:
daguerreotype
Perfecting the photographic process, Louis Daguerre was able to include _______ in his photographs, as seen in his 1839 photo Le Boulevard du Temple.
people
The art of composing printed material from letterforms is called:
typography
The device invented in the 16th century as a means of capturing and fixing images from the natural world whose name means "dark room" is:
camera obscura
The work Absolute Power is typical of the designer:
Chaz Maviyane-Davies
_______ was an early advocate of photography as an art form. He/she opened a gallery in New York City in 1905.
Steiglitz
A(n) _______ is a picture or decoration created to enhance displayed written material, inform the public and catch the viewer's eye.
Poster
A promoter of environmentalism and social problems, this artist is known primarily for photographs of the natural environment, such as Clearing Winter Storm, Yosemite National Park, California.
Ansel Adams
An illustration is commonly used alongside:
written material
In filmmaking, each unbroken sequence of movie frames, with the camera still rolling, is called a:
shot
Many contemporary photographers use new _______ technology, exemplified by Andreas Gursky's Statesville, Illinois.
digital
The method of photography that first allowed families in the United States and Europe to collect photos of themselves was:
Answer
daguerreotype
This artist is best known for expanding the traditional limitations of artistic media by incorporating video and electronic media into his/her artwork, as can be seen in Video Flag Z.
Nam June Paik
This photographer of Atop the Chrysler Building was associated with Life magazine.
Margaret Bourke-White
This still from Oskar Fischinger's film Circles is considered to be the first
experimental film
_______ invented the Polaroid camera.
Edwin Land
_______ is credited with introducing the concept of the photo essay.
Bourke-White
According to experts' contemporary theory, Stonehenge was possibly created to:
all ; solar lunar etc
During the Neolithic period, art went from:
natralistic to abstract
The Wall Painting of Animals is located in south central France at:
Chauvet Cave
The Mesopotamians built their temples, such as that of Ur-Nammu, on this type of structure, called:
ziggurat
The ancient Sumerians developed the world's first wheel, plow and
writing system
The image Woman (Venus) of Willendorf is thought to be associated with:
the Great Mother Goddess
The sizing of figures as determined by social rank is called:
hierarchic scale
The word "Neolithic" means:
New stone age
Two million years ago, the first stone tools enabled our ancestors to:
gain some control over their relationship to their surroundings
_______________, the best-known Egyptian ruler, has the only royal tomb discovered in modern times with most of the contents intact.
Tutankhamen
The vessel Earthenware Beaker is from the _______ period.
New Stone Age
The term petroglyph refers to
rock art carvings
These kinds of objects found in ancient graves indicated a ritual burial practice.
embalmed bodies of royalty, artifacts, tools and furniture
The stylistic characteristics of ancient Egyptian art changed relatively little over time because of
lack of accessibility due to the Nile dessert on both sides of the Nile River.
Tutankhamen the best-known pharaoh today due to
the discovery of his royal tomb in modern times
Stonhenge, a neolithic structure in England, was built
in layers over more than a millennium
As a part of the Mesopotamian culture, _________________________, were built to link the heavens and the earth.
ziggurats
Hierachic scale illustrates
social rank, the largest being the most important.
This three dimensional work of art titled Head of an Akkadian Ruler, portrays
the image of an absolute monarch.
The earliest major civilizations were those in four fertile river valleys. They are the
Tigris, Euphrates, Nile and Indus rivers.
Head of an Old Man is an example of sculpture from the _______ portrait tradition.
Roman
Byzantine Emperor Leo ordered the destruction of all images of Christ, Mary, the saints and the angels to discourage ___________________.
the worship of the images as opposed to the divine being.
Early Christian Art was created in private homes and underground burial chambers called:
catacombs
Early Christian churches were built with a/an ________________, their plain exteriors gave no hint as to what was to be seen within.
inward focus
One feature that set Gothic architecture apart from Romanesque was the extensive use of:
stained glass
The Parthenon was designed to honor:
athena
The Purse Cover from the Sutton Hoo ship burial illustrates one distinguishing characteristic of the art of migrating peoples of the Middle Ages that is based on:
animals
The first Christian churches were patterned after Roman basilicas used by the Romans as:
government buildings
The first large sculpture since Roman times can be found _______ in Romanesque churches.
over the central doorway
_______ is an excellent example of Gothic architecture.
Chartres Cathedral
Greek sculptors were famous for their figures known as "kore" and "kouros." These figures represented
freestanding statues of a nude male and a clothed female.
The Iconoclastic Controversy was a tumultuous period during the Byzantine empire. Emperor Leo III ordered the desctruction of all images of Christ, Mary, the saints and the angels. The reasoning behind this was
the emperor and his party believed these images encouraged idolatry, worship of the image, rather than worship of the divine being.
The three different periods in Greek art are known as
Classical, Archaic and Hellenistic
The Roman Colosseum was built between 68 and 80 C.E., with the intention of it being used as a/an
place of amusement for the Roman rulers and citizens.
The Pantheon was built by ________________, and it was intended as a/an ______________________ for it's function?
Romans; major temple to all the gods
Greek architectural orders have become a standard for architectural design through the ages. The image below is and example of _______________ order.
Corinthian
The style of art produced during the end of the 4th century B.C.E. is called _______________________. This style is considered more dynamic and less idealized of other styles of Greek art.
Hellenistic
The Acropolis in the city-state of Athens is the home of several sacred buildings. The most prominent of these buildings is the ______________________ and is dedicated to the god/goddess ___________________.
Parthenon; Athena
The Greek focus on ________________ and ___________________ led to the development of democracy and naturalistic human figures in art.
human potential; achievement
Greek sculptors were known for their close adaptation of life-like figures. One of the most commonly used techniques is known as _________________, which refers to a shift of weight in the figure's pose.
contrapposto
The Holy Trinity fresco, by Masaccio, is considered to be the first painting based on the use of:
linear perspective
Caravaggio's dramatic portrayal of scenes at night, as seen in The Conversion of Saint Paul, was called:
chiaroscuro
In Jan van Eyck's The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami, the woman is wearing green because:
it symbolized fertility
In the Netherlands, the major patrons of such artists as Vermeer and Rembrandt were:
the middle and upper classes
Leonardo da Vinci's technique of blurred edges, called _______, can be seen in his Mona Lisa.
chiaroscuro
Many Baroque characteristics developed as propaganda for the:
Counter Reformation
Many Renaissance artists benefited from the patronage of the _______ family.
Medici
Michelangelo's David has a pose influenced by the sculpture of the ancient:
Greeks
Rococo paintings mainly showed:
life without troubles
The first woman to gain widespread notoriety as an artist in the Renaissance was:
Sofonisba Anguissola
Bernini's The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa is an excellent example of the style known as Baroque. The elements of the Baroque style Bernini used are
moment of greatest feeling, spiritual passion and departure from the naturalistic style.
Women artists from the Middle Ages onward faced many difficulties, some of these issues include
negative attitudes of families and patrons toward female artists.
The three cities where High Renaissance art flourished include
Florence, Rome and Venice
What was the significance of linear perspective for Renaissance artists?
This applied use of geometry brought a more realistic illusion of implied space to their paintings.
What was the primary subject matter for Rococo artists?
portrayal of the aristocratic lifestyle of ease, gaiety and carefree activities.
The Renaissance period of art is considered one of the most significant periods in art history. The term Renaissance means
rebirth
Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini Portrait makes use of ordinary object portraying spiritual significance. These objects include
all
Masaccio used linear perspective in the Trinity with the Virgin to create the illusion
of a deep barrel vault extending behind the figures of the Trinity.
Leonardo da Vinci, a significant figure during the Renaissance period, believed __________________________________.
art and science are two means to the same end: knowledge
Donatello's David is a significant work of sculpture because
it is the first life-size, freestanding nude statue since ancient Roman times.