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BIO 105 FINAL EXAM Animal Transport
Terms in this set (74)
Open circulatory system
- many invertebrates
- vessels carry fluid to sinuses
- fluid flow over organs
- less efficient
- i.e. grasshopper, crayfish
- Blood is pumped by a heart into the body cavities, where tissues are surrounded by the blood.
Closed circulatory system
- most vertebrates
- heart (singular)
- blood contained in vessels
- complete circulation
- more efficient
- i.e. humans, octopus
- Avantageous: Since blood circulates only inside blood vessels, it has a higher pressure and, as a result, can travel greater distances to the organs where hematosis happens and to peripheral tissues
- muscular pump
- cardiac muscle
- valves prevent backflow
- four chambers: two atria (, two ventricles
The blood vessels are one of the major components of the cardiovascular system. There are three major types of blood vessels: (1) arteries, (2) veins, and (3) capillaries.
- hair-like thin tubule
is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium. Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
- prevent backflow
- smaller, receive blood
- forces blood intro ventricles
- each of the two upper cavities of the heart from which blood is passed to the ventricles. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the veins of the body; the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein.
- larger, pump blood to lungs/body
- a chamber of the heart which receives blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries
- withstands higher pressure
- no valves
- carries blood AWAY from the heart
- thicker wall
- carry blood TOWARD the heart
- thinner wall
- connective tissue
- smooth muscle
- epithelium - inner lining
the artery carrying blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.
- a vein carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Superior vena cava
A large vein that receives blood from the head, neck, upper extremities, and thorax and delivers it to the right atrium of the heart.
Inferior vena cava
The inferior vena cava is the largest vein in the human body. It collects blood from veins serving the tissues inferior to the heart and returns this blood to the right atrium of the heart. Although the vena cava is very large in diameter, its walls are incredibly thin due to the low pressure exerted by venous blood.
each of a pair of valves in the heart, at the bases of the aorta and the pulmonary artery, consisting of three cusps or flaps that prevent the flow of blood back into the heart.
The atrioventricular valves separate the atria from the ventricles and prevent backflow from the ventricles into the atria during systole.
a partition separating two chambers, such as that between the nostrils or the chambers of the heart.
- The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aorta begins at the top of the left ventricle, the heart's muscular pumping chamber.
- The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation
- smaller, receive blood
- The left atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart, located on the left posterior side. Its primary roles are to act as a holding chamber for blood returning from the lungs and to act as a pump to transport blood to other areas of the heart.
- smaller, receives blood
- The right upper chamber of the heart. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the vena cava and pumps it into the right ventricle which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated.
- larger, pump blood to lungs/body
- located in the bottom left portion of the heart below the left atrium, separated by the mitral valve. The left ventricle is the thickest of the heart's chambers and is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to tissues all over the body.
- larger, pump blood to lungs/body
- The right ventricle is the chamber within the heart that is responsible for pumping oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs.
2)blood forced into ventricles
4)atrioventricular valves snap shut, making "lub" sound
5)blood to lungs and body
7)semilunar valves snap shut = "dub"
✦heart murmur = backflow in valve
- the thin tissue forming the outer layer of a body's surface and lining the alimentary canal and other hollow structures.
- 1-2 cell layers thick
- allow one blood cell through at a time (very narrow)
- This maximizes the exchange between blood cells and body tissues and between blood and atmosphere in the lungs
- Blood distribution in the body is regulated by smooth muscle at base of capillary beds. Closing or opening of the smooth muscle rings regulates blood flow into the capillary bed.
- muscle tissue in which the contractile fibrils are not highly ordered, occurring in the gut and other internal organs and not under voluntary control.
tissue that connects, supports, binds, or separates other tissues or organs, typically having relatively few cells embedded in an amorphous matrix, often with collagen or other fibers, and including cartilaginous, fatty, and elastic tissues.
- result from incompetent valves that allow back flowand resulting in the blood pooling in the vein
- found in legs, rectum (hemorrhoids), scrotum (varicocele) <-- 25% of men
- develop in arteries; narrow or close the artery (atherosclerosis)
- hardening and narrowing of the arteries -- silently and slowly blocks arteries, putting blood flow at risk.
- It's the usual cause of heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease -- what together are called cardiovascular disease
- can result when coronary arteries (which feed heart) are blocked
- symptoms: pressure, squeezing, burning, or tightness in the chest, which usually starts in the chest behind the breastbone. Angina also can occur in the arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, throat, or back and may feel like indigestion. Angina is due to reduced or blocked blood flow.
Heart blockages - atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries - are detected by a heart catheterization. A catheter is inserted in the artery, usually from the groin, and a dye is injected in the heart. X-rays show where the blockages are, which are highlighted by the dye.
- catheter inserted in the artery
- small balloon opened next to plaque
- compresses plaque
- opens artery
- sometimes a stent is placed in artery
- inserted during angioplasty; mesh tube to hold an artery open
- pressure on the vessel walls
- related to 1) the force of the heartbeat and 2) fluid volume in vessels
- Greatest in the arteries >> then capillaries >> then veins
(NOTE: fluid velocity is highest in the arteries, lowest in the capillaries, but picks up again in the veins)
- Relaxation of heart (DR)
- lower pressure due to volume of liquid in vessel (like the pressure in a water balloon)
- Contraction of heart (CS)
- pressure is higher due to the direct force on the blood
- measures blood pressure (actually measure the response of the vessels to pressure)
- pressure units the same as those given by weather report of atmospheric pressure
- high blood pressure of about 140/90, where 120/80 is normal
- serious condition that can lead to tissue damage in kidneys and vessel epithelium (and stroke and heart disease)
- low blood pressure
- much less serious (unless due to blood loss, poor nutrition or thyroid condition)
1) heart relaxed: atrio-ventricle valve opens (0.4 sec)
2) atria contract (0.1 sec)
3) ventricles contract: semilunar valves open (0.3)
- backflow in valve ("lub-dub-swish")
- muscle cell is polarized across its cell membrane in its relaxed resting state (like diastole)
- caused by an imbalance of K and Na ions >> causes area outside the cell to be enriched with positive ions; inside enriched with negative
- outside = positive, inside = negative
- positive ions enter cardiac muscle cell, causing contraction
- positive ions are pumped out out of the cell
- this restores the polarizing resting state and the cell relaxes again
- allows coordination so that the heartbeat occurs from a central trigger in a coordinated manner and is "forced" to wait for the next central trigger (SA node)
- central trigger
- pacemaker of the heart located in the right atrium
- structure that initiates electrical activity of heart
- this sets off a chain reaction of depolarization
- self-starting/independent of other organs
- controls heart rate
- The AV node serves as an electrical relay station, slowing the electrical current sent by the sinoatrial (SA) node before the signal is permitted to pass down through to the ventricles.
Bundle of His
carry the contraction impulse from both the left and right bundle branch to the myocardium of the ventricles.
Electrical control of the heart beat
First, the electrical control of the heartbeat begins from the sinoatrial (SA) node in the right atrium. The SA node generates a wave of signals to contract. Second, the wave propagates from cell to cell across the atria and the atria contract. Third, the signal reaches the top of the ventricles and travels downward, through the septum between ventricles to the Purkinje fibers. Fourth, the signal is passed to the cardiac muscle cells of the ventricles and the ventricles contract, while the atria relax. Fifth (not shown), the ventricles then relax.
- measures electrical activity of the heart
- leads attach to body to detect electrical activity
- deflects a pen on a moving piece of paper
- the ventricular contraction or depolarization
- shows the electrical activity associated with atrial contraction or depolarization
- the ventricular relaxation or re-polarization
- "normal sinuous rhythm"
- Random contractions throughout the heart muscle
- heart quivers but doesn't pump blood
- ECG shows peaks and valleys but not normal sinuous rhythm
- designed to shock the heart so that all cells contract and then reset at the same time
- it is an electrical stimulus that causes depolarization - so the electrical shock causes the cardiac muscle cells to depolarize
- "reset shock"
- only liquid tissue
- consists of cells suspended in liquid plasma
- overall, blood is 55% plasma and 45% formed elements
- straw-colored liquid
- composed mainly of H2O (most important bodily solvent)
- important in maintaining pH balance and membrane functions
- important transport functions carrying dissolved nutrients, wastes, hormones and gases
- derived from stem cells in bone marrow
- 3 major types: 1) red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes, 2) white blood cells or Leucocytes, and 3) platelets
Red blood cells/erythrocytes
- most common
- 5-6 million per cc
- contain hemoglobin and transport O2 and CO2 in the blood
White blood cells/leucocytes
- occur at a density of about 5000-10,000 per cc of blood and are involved in immunity and defense
- cell fragments at about 250,000-400,000 per cc blood
- important in blood clotting
- protein in plasma (involved in osmotic and pH balance)
- blood clotting ("fibers" to clot)
- proteins for immunity and defense
Platelet clotting factors
- platelets form a patch for small cut in a capillary
- a shit ton of more factors occur for larger cuts
- inactive; circulates in the blood
- platelet clotting factors will bind with calcium to form a factor that converts inactive prothrombin to thrombin
- active form
- converts into inactive protein fibrinogen to fibrin
- forms a fibrous mass at the point of injury that will trap cells, including red blood cells from the blood oozing from the injury
- develops into a scab
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