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ISB 202 MSU Johnson Final
Terms in this set (94)
just like plants, most animals are autotrophic right?
about how many species of animals are known to exist?
most animals species are invertebrates. true or false?
most animals exhibit bilateral symmetry. what type of symmetry is exhibited by things like starfish?
what animal is responsible for producing most of the limestone that exists on earth?
we don't get tapeworms from chicken meat, so is eating under-cooked chicken safe?
what phylum of animals was first to have a complete digestive system?
what phylum of animals was the first to have organs?
what phylum of animals was the first to have tissues?
what phylum of animals has no tissues or organs and also lacks symmetry?
what does coelum mean? what phylum of animals was the first to have coelomate bodies?
coelum means "to have a body cavity". mollusks were the first to have coelomate bodies
there are 11 phyla of animals, ranging from the sponges to the highest form, the ______
blood flukes are flatworms that cause shistosmiasis in humans, especially in developing countries. what other animal is involved in the reproductive cycle of blood flukes?
while there may be fewer species of them, how does the number of individual roundworms on earth compare to the number of insects?
roundworms are the most abundant animals on earth. there are more species of insects, but not greater total numbers
one kind of roundworm plugs the lymph system of humans, leading to a disease called _______
wha tis the major way in which humans get tapeworms?
from undercooked beef, pork, and fish
what slimy little garden creature is a common example of mollusk phylum of animals?
the annelid phylum is com-posed of creatures with segmented bodies. what type of annelid is seen on MSU sidewalks in the early spring months after rainy nights?
which phylum makes up over half of the total known species of animals in the world?
what crustacean is included in the name of a US national restaurant chain?
does a millipede really have a thousand legs?
do sharks have bones?
besides have a backbone, some sort of major nerve cord, a pharynx for breathing and eating, what else do vertebrates have?
embryos all have tails
what were the first vertebrates on land?
reptiles likely arose from amphibians. do reptiles have to rely on water for fertilization of eggs?
are the shells of reptilian eggs hard or soft?
of all organisms, birds are the only ones with feathers. true or false?
mammals get their name from the latin word, "mamma," which means what?
what is the only mammal that can truly fly?
do any mammals lay eggs?
some do. monotremes
placental animals are mammals, but marsupial animals aren't rights?
false. most mammals are placental but a few marsupials still exist.
where is the greatest concentration of marsupial species today?
in placental animals, does the mother's blood mix with that of the fetus?
no. the placenta provides a medium to get nutrients to the fetus without mixing bloods between mother and child
of the 2,000,000 known species of animals, most are _______
what is ecology?
the study of interactions of living things with each other and with the environment
what is the difference between an ecologist and an environmentalist?
ecologist study nature. environmentalist want to preserve nature
when one species of organisms is eliminated from the biosphere, why are other species affected?
all species interact in someway
a population of a species is whatever we define it to be, right?
yes. a population is a group of individuals
an ecosystem includes the organisms and all of the abiotic factors. what does abiotic mean?
abiotic factors are the non-living in the system
what does the word niche means?
the position or function of an organism in a community of plants and/or animals or simply where it fits in
what are the four major ways in which species interact?
predation - keeps the ecosystem in balance
parasitism - one benefits, the other loses
mutualism - each benefits
commensalism - one benefits without hurting or helping the other
what is commensalism?
one benefits without hurting or helping the other
what is implied by the word sustainability?
living from the interest and not from the capital
technically speaking, is littering environmental degradation?
no. environmental degradation is when use of a resource exceeds the replacement rate
wha tis the difference between point and non-point pollutants? which is easier to handle?
point pollutant are specific sources that can be determined.
non-point pollutants are sources that may be multiple and harder to identify.
point source pollutants are easier to handle
what are the three major factors that determine how harmful a pollutant is?
degree of toxicity- how much does it take to do harm
concentration - the solution to pollution is dilution
persistence - how long it lasts in the environment
what was rev. thomas malthus' theory about population and food supply?
food supply would increase arithmetically, and population would increase geometrically
why was malthus not correct about the date a which mass starvation would occur?
we have huge advances in agricultural sciences - much more food on same amount of land, contraceptive and other birth control measures, communication of knowledge
how does malthus' theory look at the present time?
states that there is a huge correlation between population, poverty, and environmental degradation
how many more people are born than die each second?
about what portion of the population growth in the next 26 years will occur in developing countries?
what is the upper limit of population increases causing the most problems?
in what two areas of the world are population increases causing the most problems?
africa and central america
can we feed all of the poeple in the world in the year 2020
from a latitude standpoint, where do 2/3 of the world's people live? with respect to that area, where is most of the food produced?
2/3 people live between 25N and 25S
2/3 of world's food production is 30-45 North
what type of reproductive strategy is characterized by long lives of individuals that respond to a fixed amount of resources?
flies, mosquitoes, rats, all have what kind of reproductive strategy?
R-species; short life, reproduce quickly, and population numbers vary greatly
from an environmental niche standpoint, are humans generalists or specialists
generalist; wide niche, an live in many places
in the environmental degradation equation, P x A x T, what does each letter represent
a= amount used per person
t= level of technology
there is a very high correlation between population, poverty, and environmental degradation
would you rather live in a country with a pyramidal or one with a columnar population growth function?
what is the fertility rate for zero population growth in developing countries ? in developed countries?
developing countries = 2.5
developed countries = 2.1
what are the two major reasons for increasing the educational levels of women in developing countries?
women control population, produce 50-80% of the food in developing countries
women are responsible for producing about how much of the food in developing countries?
please name a lot of environmental degradation problems for which humans are responsible
air pollution, biodiversity depletion, wastes, food production, water pollution
what is the troposphere? is that were the ozone layer is?
the troposphere is the lowest layer of our atmosphere. ozone layer is in the stratosphere
is ozone good or bad?
bad when is near earth's surface, it's an air pollutant and causes problems.
good when is in the stratosphere that serves as a filter
is the production of global warming gases an east-west or a north-south problem
why will malaria incidence likely increase with global warming?
longer summer period increases the chance of mosquitoes being active and transmitting malaria
about how fast are the rain forests disappering
17 millions hectares per year
what is the relationship between population, wealth and sue of natural resources between developed and developing countries?
developed countries have 20% of population, 85% of wealth, 90% of natural resources, 75% pollution and wastes, and 90% of toxic wastes
what sector is responsible for the majority of solid wastes produced in the US?
what is the number one ground water pollutant in the US
about what percent of the water on earth is salt water in oceans
97.5% ~ 98%
what does the word riparian mean?
is the Ogallala aquifer in the central US one that is readily rechargeable?
how much of the fresh water in the world is found in the five great lakes of the US
what are mono-cropping, desertification, water-logging and salinization
mono-cropping = in rows, leaves soil bare part of the year, so heavy rainfall can wash away the soil which causes soil erosion
desertification = degradation of land with a decrease in productivity
water-logging = too much irrigation, not enough drainage, most plants don't grow well in flooded soils
salinization= due to salts left from evaporation of irrigation water
how does the literacy rate of women compare to that of men in most developing countries?
what is the major global warming gas? what are the two main sources of increases in this gas?
burning fossil fuels and transportation
besides water vapor, what are the five greenhouse gases in our atmosphere?
carbon dioxide (CO2)
nitrous oxide (N2O)
what is the major source of methane pollution in the US?
what are the three main causes of biodiversity depletion in the world?
introduces (non-native) species
overexploitation - commercial fishing, killing animals that prey on livestock, killing for trophies
habitat destruction - development of land
what human activities are happening in many large animal preserves that are ruining the habitats that were set up to protect endangered species of animals
the population of pandas in the wolong nature reserve in china is increasing. what species of animals is increasing faster in the nature reserver?
about what percent of the species of soil bacteria have been classified?
why is classifying the unknown soil bacteria and learning more about them a good idea?
soil bacteria might be beneficial to humans
what's bad about monocropping, especially in LDCs?
it leaves soil bare for part of the year
what industry is responsible for about 2/3 of the world's annual fresh water use?
what portion of the world's population earns only about $1 US dollar per day?
what portion of the world's population earns only about $2 US dollar per day?
when discussing pesticides in the environment, what is biological magnification?
it has to do with the concentration of toxic substance as one moves up the trophic level of the food web
is a detritivore autotrophic or heterotrophic?
what is your isb 202 instructor's one-word answer to most of the problems humans face?
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