Chemistry 132 Final
Terms in this set (80)
Hydrogen bonded to ________ is able to hydrogen bond with another molecule.
For molecules of roughly the same size, boiling point increases with polarity due to increased _______.
The transition from the solid phase to the gas phase is called ________.
The energy required to cross the liquid-solid phase boundary is called the ________.
Enthalpy of Fusion
The temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the external pressure is the _________.
For some volatile liquid, a plot of the natural logarithm of vapor pressure vs. inverse temperature has a slope of -2700 K. The enthalpy of vaporization is __________.
A ______ structure has a lattice point in the center of the cube.
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
Electrons are ___________ in a covalent-network solid.
Localized in a Specific Bond
When a gas is dissolved in a liquid, which step is endothermic?
Cavity formation in the solvent
A dissolution can be both spontaneous and endothermic because of changes in _______ that occur upon dissolution.
In general, as temperature increases, the solubility of gases in liquids ________, and the solubility of solids in liquids _________.
A solution is prepared by dissolving 2.87 g of naphthalene in 75 mL of benzene. Naphthalene has a molecular formula of C10H8, and benzene has a density of 0.877 g/mL. The molality of the solution is ________.
Addition of solute to a solvent causes a decrease in the vapor pressure of the solvent. The resulting vapor pressure decrease is proportional with solvent _________.
A solution is prepared by dissolving 3.87 g of caffeine, C8H10N4O2, in water to a final volume of 250.0 mL. The osmotic pressure of the solution at 25° C is ________.
A gas has a solubility of 0.15 M in water when its pressure is 14.7 psi. If the pressure is tripled to 44.1 psi, the new solubility is _____.
Scattering of light by a colloidal solution is called the ________ effect.
A 0.75 m solution of NaCl is prepared in water. Ideally, what is the freezing point of the solution?
-2.8 degrees C
Two liquids can be mixed in any proportion. They are said to be completely _________.
In the limit of infinite dilution, CaCl2 has a van't Hoff factor of ________.
A solution with a total solute concentration of 0.185 M is _______ relative to a solution with a total solute concentration of 0.325 M.
In general, as temperature increases, reaction rate __________.
In the reaction CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O, the initial concentration of CO2 is 0.000 M, and after 30.0 sec the concentration of CO2 is 0.670 M. What is the average reaction rate over this time span?
A rate law for a reaction A + B C is found to be Rate = k[A][B]2. The reaction is ______ order in reactant A, _____ order in reactant B, and ________ order overall.
1st, 2nd, 3rd
For some reaction, when concentration of reactant "A" is doubled the rate of the reaction goes up by a factor of 4. The reaction is ______ order in reactant A.
In the Arrhenius Equation, Ea is the _________
For some reaction, a plot of the natural logarithm of rate constant vs. inverse temperature is linear, with a slope of -1700 K. The activation energy is _________.
An elementary reaction with one reactant, A, has a rate law of Rate = _____.
Metallic platinum is often used to catalyze the oxidation of CO (g) to CO2 (g). This is an example of __________ catalysis.
In enzymatic catalysis, the _________ binds to the enzyme.
In a system at equilibrium ____________.
The forward and reverse rates are unequal
A process has an equilibrium constant Kc of 5 x 1014. At equilibrium ____________.
A reaction A--> B + C has an equilibrium constant of Kc. The reverse process has an equilibrium constant of ______.
If an overall reaction is the sum of two elementary reactions, the equilibrium constant of the overall reaction is the _______ of the equilibrium constants of the elementary reactions.
A reaction has an equilibrium constant Kc of 5.6. At some point in time, the reaction quotient Qc = 7.9. The reaction will ___________.
Produce more reactant
For the reaction H2 (g) + I2 (g) --> 2 HI (g)
At some temperature the equilibrium concentrations are [H2] = 0.15 M; [I2] = 0.033 M; and [HI] = 0.55 M. What is Kc?
Biochemical catalysts are called _________.
The gas-phase reaction 2 O3 (g) 3 O2 (g) has a concentration equilibrium constant Kc =
15.8 at 150°C. What is the pressure equilibrium constant, Kp at this temperature?
The process PbCl2 (s) Pb2+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) has an equilibrium constant expression of Kc = _______.
The rate _________ step is the slowest step of a multi-step process
The isotope 18F is used in nuclear medicine (PET scanning), primarily to detect cancer. It's half-life is 109.8 minutes, and it decays via first-order kinetics. What is the rate constant for decay of 18F?
6.31 x 10-3 min-1 D) 1.79 x 10-6 min-1
Which of these is a strong acid?
The autoionization constant of water (Kw) is _____.
A Brønsted-Lowry acid _________.
is a proton donor
The conjugate base of HNO2 is __________.
A solution has an [H+] = 0.000582 M. The pH of the solution is _________.
A buffer is 0.15 M in acetic acid and 0.05 M in sodium acetate. If the pKa of acetic acid is 4.75, what is the pH of the buffer?
A buffer is 25 mM in sodium formate and 35 mM in formic acid. The pKa of formic acid is 3.75. The buffer concentration is _______.
A solution has a pH of 5.8. Its pOH is _________.
A clue that HClO4 is a strong acid is ___________.
The large number of O compared to H
An acid has a pKa of 2.51. It Ka is ________.
Weak bases produce OH- in water by ___________.
Removing a proton from H2O
Acetic acid has a pKa of 4.75. The acetate ion (its conjugate base) has a Kb of ________.
A lower value of pKa indicates a _________ weak acid.
Of the following acids, which is the weakest?
Of the following acids, which is the weakest?
A 25.85 mL aliquot of HCl is titrated to the equivalence point with 28.45 mL of 0.1145 M NaOH. What is the HCl concentration?
A solution has a pH of 5.85. The concentration of OH- is ______ M
A Lewis Acid is a(n) ____________.
Which of these acts as a Lewis acid in aqueous solution?
Which of these characteristics tends to increase the strength of an acid?
Stability of the Conjugate Base
An element that loses electrons is said to be ________________.
The oxidation number for iron (Fe) in FeO is ____________.
In a redox reaction the oxidizing agent is _____
In the reaction: Cu (s) + NO3- (aq) --> Cu2+ (aq) + NO2 (g)
The oxidant is ____________.
We balance oxygen in acidic aqueous redox reactions by adding
AgCl has a Ksp of 1.8 x 10-10. Its molar solubility in water is _________.
The presence of a common ion ________ the Ksp of a slightly soluble salt.
Does not affect
In some process, the number of microstates for a system increases. Then entropy change for the system is __________.
The Ksp expression for Mn(OH)2 is ____________.
A process has a negative enthalpy change and a positive entropy change. The process is spontaneous at ___________.
The heat of fusion of water (H2O) is 6.01 kJ/mol. What is the entropy change of the system when 150.0 g of water melts at 0° C?
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy _____________.
Increases in spontaneous processes
∆G for a nonspontaneous process is _____________.
A process has an equilibrium constant K of 2.5 x 103 at 300 K. What is ∆G° at that temperature?
van't Hoff analysis of the temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant produces a van't Hoff plot with a slope of -14500 K. What is ∆H° for this process?
In a compound, oxygen generally has an oxidation number of __________.
For some reaction, ∆G° is positive. The value for K for that same process is ______.
less than one
For some reaction, at 100° C, ∆H is -15.5 kJ/mol, and ∆S is -46.5 J/mol-K. What is ∆G at that temperature?
For some reaction, ∆H is -7.50 kJ/mol, and ∆S is -33.2 J/mol-K. At what temperature is ∆G = 0?
For some reaction at 298 K, ∆G° = -28.7 kJ/mol. If Q is 3.5 x 10-5, what is ∆G?