82 terms

Key AP Government Course Terms

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Marbury v. Madison
(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review
Plurality System
A type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate need only receive the most votes in the election, not necessarily a majority of votes cast
Shay's Rebellion
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
Federalist Papers 10
written by James Madison: outlines the need for and general principles of a democratic republic. Also provides a political and economic analysis of the realities of interest group or faction politics (considered one of most important documents in American History)
Federalist Papers 51
Madison wrote in 1788. agreed that Three seperate, independant branches with the same amount of power( except the legislative branch would be bigger). Government should control people, but also its self, and individual rights should be protected. also stated that ideal society wouldnt need government and people have ultimate power
Federalist Papers 70
deals with the question of a plural executive. Hamilton argues that a plural executive, having more than one president, "tends to conceal faults, and destroy responsibility", and states that a singular president would better be suited to wield the full potential of his power in a quick and efficient way, without falling into endless squabbling and dispute with other executives with the same power. He also warns that when dealing with more than one leader, "there is always difference of opinion".
Federalist Papers 78
Hamilton, the power of judicial review. It argues that the federal courts have the duty to determine whether acts of Congress are constitutional, and to follow the Constitution when there is inconsistency. Hamilton viewed this as a protection against abuse of power by Congress. Fed. No. 78 also explained how the judiciary was the least dangerous branch of the government because it depends on the other two branches of government to uphold its judgments.
Articles of confederation weaknesses
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Great compromise
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems-- At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state's representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
federalism
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Separation of powers/ Checks and balances
Separation of Powers = Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law. Checks and Balances = A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power. Both ideas stemmed from James Madison, who argued for a large republic with many, separate powers that prevented any one from becoming the top authority. Divided pwr b/w state + nation.
Amendment Process
step 1: amendment proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses of congress OR a constitutional convention called by congress on petition of 2/3 out of 50 states. THEN amendment ratified by 3/4 of the 50 state legislatures OR 3/4 of special constitutional conventions called by 50 states THEN the new amendment!
5th and 14th Amendments' Due Process
Due process Clause: the "big picture" is that the bill of rights provides protection of citizens' life, liberty and property rights" against action by the govt. for all citizens. (two types: procedural and substantive) these amendments guarentee it
Grants-in-aid
Federal Funds provided to states and localities are typically provided for airports, highways, education, and major welfare services.
Bicameral Legislature
A law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.
Full faith and credit clause
Clause in the Constitution (Article 4, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid.
Public opinion
The distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and policy issues
Push polling
A type of survey in which the questions are presented in a biased way in an attempt to influence the respondent reaction to a candidate or idea
political ideology
A consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government.
political culture/ culture war
Orthodox v progressive, orthodox more black and white/traditional/tend to be religious progressives see the gray in situations, adjust to new
political socialization
Complex process by which people get their sense of political identity, beliefs, and values (family most important, school, media, religion, national events-all help to socialize)
"new" media
high-tech outlets (blogs,social media, TV) that have sprung up to compete with traditional newspapers, magazines, and network news
Gatekeeper role of media
influence what issues become national issues and for how long
Scorekeeper role of media
keep track of and make political reputations
Watchdog role of media
The role of the media in scrutinizing the actions of government officials; our eyes on the government., Dig up facts and warn the public if something is wrong
third parties
electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections.
Party Coalition (new deal coalition)
the groups that identify with a political party, usually described in demographic terms such as African American Democrats or evangelical Republicans-- coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
Party realignment/ dealignment
when the minority party becomes stronger than the majority party., The displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period-- the gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties, as seen in part by shrinking party identification
Interest groups tatics
Indirect (mail, social media, tv) direct (trial, boycott)
Lobbyist and regulations
Attempting to influence government lobbying is generally most effective on narrow, technical issues that are not well-publicized, Regulations- Lobbying disclosure act of 1995
PAC's
A PAC is a political action committee, or a political committee that's created for the purposes of electing or defeating a candidate. They can receive and give money in parcels of up to $5000 a year. They usually represent business, labor, or ideological interests within their particular party.
Caucus (Iowa Caucus)
A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform., First state to hold a caucus or primary, therefore giving Iowa much attention during the campaign season.
Primaries (New Hampshire)
Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the General Election, First Presidential primary and its winner becomes the media's major attention
Delegates/Superdelegates
Delegates: A person sent or authorized to represent others, in particular, an elected representative sent to a conference. Superdelegates: National party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the national party convention.
Incumbency Advantages
franking, name recognition, pork barrel, redistricting, campaign finance, constituency service, access to media
Shay's- Meehan (McCain Feingold bill)
campaign finance reform act; raised hard money limits to $2000 and banned soft money contributions to national political portion
Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1971-1974
A law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission, provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.
Citizens United v FEC (2010)
A 2010 decision by the United States Supreme Court holding that independent expenditures are free speech protected by the 1st Amendment and so cannot be limited by federal law. Leads to creation of SuperPACs & massive rise in amount of third party electioneering (Citizens for a Better Tomorrow, Tomorrow)
New Hampshire Primary/ Iowa Caucus
First Presidential primary and its winner becomes the media's major attention--, First state to hold a caucus or primary, therefore giving Iowa much attention during the campaign season.
Census/Reapportionment/Gerrymandering
Statistical analysis of the population; Constitution requires one to take place every ten years--Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people-- Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Committee (roles and Specific types)
Conference (rewrite bills) joint (investigate) select (investigate) Ways and means (house, taxes) Rules committee (house, makes debate rules and times) Appropriations (spending bills) Budget Foreign relations armed services finance
Elastic and commerce clauses (Necessary and proper)
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution-- The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
Imperial president
a U.S. presidency that is characterized by greater power than the constitution allows.
Impeachment
An action by the House of Representatives to accuse the president, vice president, or other civil officers of the United States of committing "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
Judicial activism vs restraint
A doctrine holding that the Supreme Court should take an active role by using its powers to check the activities of governmental bodies when those bodies exceed their authority-- view that the courts should reject any active lawmaking functions and stick to judicial interpretations of the past
Stare Decisis
A Latin phrase meaning "let the decision stand." Most cases reaching appellate courts are settled on this principle.
Writ of certiorari/ Mandamus
An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up a case for review-- An extraordinary writ commanding an official to perform a ministerial act that the law recognizes as an absolute duty and not a matter for the official's discretion
Habeous Corpus
notion that no one may be imprisoned without explanation and the individual was entitled to appear before the courts within a reasonable time
District v circuit court
District Courts: Handle 90% of all federal cases. Cases are tried by a judge and jury Use grand juries to issue indictments (orders that charge an individual with a crime Does not mean that One is guilty. it merely means
that one will be tried a petit (trial)jury decides the outcome of a case Jurisdiction: original. May try civil/ criminal or constitutional cases
Courts of Appeals (Circuit Courts) Are 12 of these. spread out in 12 districts or "circuits " Cases tried by a panel of three judges, except when all judges of a
Circuit Court hear a case "en banc " Jurisdiction: appellate. Hears appeals from District Courts and
regulatory commissions. Decisions may be appealed to the Supreme Court
McCulloch v Maryland 1819
the Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Constitution's supremacy clause. The Court's broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers, case that established the principle that the federal government was supreme over the state.
Civil service system (Pendleton act 1881)
the practice of hiring goverment workers on basis of open competitve examinations and merit, created the federal Civil Service
Hatch Act 1939
Permitted government employees to vote in government elections but forbade them from participating in partisan politics
Iron Triangles Issue networks
A mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. They dominate some areas of domestic policymaking-- The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
Keynesian Economics
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
Foreign v domestic policy
A nation's overall plan for dealing with other nations (president) - A government's plan to deal with internal issues of the country (congress)
Social security
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Entitlements
A claim for government funds that cannot be abridged without violating the rights of the claimant; for example, social security benefits or payments on a contract.
Civil Liberties v rights
Constitutional freedoms guaranteed to all citizens-- Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals.
Gitlow v New York 1925
Selective incorporation, states may not violate free speech 14th amendment
Miranda v Arizona 1966
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
U.S. v N.Y. times 1971
US put an injunction on the times who were printing classified info, SCOTUS said you cannot block something before it has happened
Gideon v Wainwright 1963
state courts are required under the fourteenth amendment to provide counsel for those who cannot afford an attorney
Civil rights act 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Voting rights act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Title XI
federal law passed in 1972, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender in school programs, including physical education
Exclusionary rule (Mapp v Ohio 1961)
established the exclusionary rule; evidence illegally obtained cannot be used in court; Warren Court's judicial activism
Affirmative action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
Selective incorporation
The process by which provisions of the Bill of Rights are brought within the scope of the Fourteenth Amendment and so applied to state and local governments.
Pocket veto
A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
U.C. Regents v Bakke 1978
upheld affirmative action, allowing race to be one of several factors in college admission policy. However, the court ruled that specific quotas, such as the 16 out of 100 seats set aside for minority students by the University of California, Davis School of Medicine, were impermissible.
Voter turnout characteristics
Middle age or old- applies to them
Caucasian or asian-culture and lack of generational support for african americans and a language barrier for hispanics
3rd house of congress
Conference committee- A Conference Committee is a temporary panel of House and Senate negotiators. A conference committee is created to resolve differences between versions of similar House and Senate bills.
Linking mechanisms/ institutions between people and gov
Interest groups, lobbyist, social media, TV
Partisanship
Government action based on firm allegiance to a political party
Divided government
Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
Frontloading
The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention
Logrolling
An agreement by two or more lawmakers to support each other's bills
Bureaucratic red tape
Probably the most common complaint about bureaucracies, red tape refers collectively to the complex rules and procedures that cause delays and sometimes make it difficult to get something done.
Discretionary authority
the extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose coarses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws
Policy implementations
the stage of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects. It involves translating the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing program.
Equal protection clauses (14th amendment)
14th amendment clause that prohibits states from denying equal protection under the law, and has been used to combat discrimination
Influence peddling
using personal friendships and inside information to get political advantage