Social Psychology Final Exam
Terms in this set (80)
according to the definition of social pscyhology presented in your text, social psychology is the study of how (__________) affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of humans
the presence of real or imagined others
Justing isn't sure if he wants to date Mary, with whom he shares many similarities, or Emma, who is very different from him. His friend says, "Opposites attract," and advises him to date Emma. But his brother says, "birds of a feather flock together," and suggests that he pursue Mary. This best exemplifies that...
folk wisdom oversimplifies complex situations
Shanika is an executive, and asked her assistant repeatedly to make some copies for her. The assistant repeatedly failed to successfully complete the assignment. If Shanika is thinking like a psychologist about this situation, what is she most likely to think about her assingement?
"perhaps my assistant is under stress from something else."
The tendency most people have to discount situational explanations of behavior in favor of personality characteristics or traits is called
Fundamental Attribution Error
Social Psychologists use the term (________) to describe the way in which people percieve, comprehend, and interact their social worlds.
Josh and his friends have just started up a new fraternity on campus, and want to recruit men who will be loyal and love it. Based on the self-esteem approach, which initiation strategy would you recommend to Josh?
Make them suffer a little: ride backwards in elevators all week
Social Cognition is the study of how people...
Think about themselves aand the social world
Patricia and John have each independently recorded the number of times the worlds "right" and "responsibility" appeared in a civics textbook. They compared their counts, and found that the thousands of references to rights and responsibilities, they only disagreed on 2 occurences. this example illustrates high...
Tony has been doing research on age and aggression. He has discovered that the older a person gets, the less likley he or she is to aggress against another person. What kind of relationship best describes Tony's findings.
Why is it unwise to conclude that if two variables are correlated, one must have caused the other?
Some unmeasured 3rd variable might make them appear related when in fact they are not.
The variable a researcher measures to see if it is affected in the experiment is called the
Dr. Aronoff takes extra time when planning his studies to make sure that the results will generalize other people and other situations than those he is directly examining. Dr. Aronoff is concerned with...
The primary goal of cross-cultural research is to
Demonstrate the universality or cultural dependence of psychological processes
When a person agrees to participate in an experiment full awareness of the nature of the experiment, which has been provided prior to their participation, the participant has provided
If a researcher were to use deception as part of her experiemental procedure, when would she explain the purpose of this deception to her participants
during the debriefing
When Robin meets her friend's new roommate, she sees that she has easels and paint strewn about, and has decorated her side of the room with lots of hand made ceramic pots and paintings. At first, Robin is msot likely...
To use her "artistic" person schema and assume that her friend's roomate is free thinking and creative
The first day of class, Maria absolutly loved her new social psychology professor, but Daniel couldn't stand her. If their interpretations were influenced by schemas, in all likelyhood, Maria had heard ___________, whereas Daniel had heard __________.
That the professor was great; that the professor was horrible
James had a goal of being able to run a marathon by next year. When he sees a woman dart out of a store and start running he immediatly thinks, "Oh, she must be a runner too!" rather than, "She's a shoplifter trying to get away." Which of the followingis the best explanation for why one schema was accessible rather than another?
a current goal
Based on information from the authors of your text, what is one of the possible explanations as to why girls and boys perform about the same on math in elementary school, but the gap appears around puberty?
Self-furfilling prophecies seem to occur
Research has demonstrated that metaphors about the body and social judgements influence how we think and the decisions that we make. If that is true, the next time that you are feeling lonely and as if the world is a cold heartless place, what should you do and why?
Hold a warm beverage in your hands because warmth is associated with friendliness
The _________ heuristic refers to the mental shortcut whereby people classify a person or thing based on how similar it appears to be to the typical case
When people use information about relative frequency of members of different categories in the population to make judgements, they are using...
base rate information
In the study by Shariff and Norenzayan (2007) presented in your text, what made people behave more altruistically, actually leaving more money for a stranger?
They were primed with words related to God
Which of the following does not belong?
You stayed up all night cramming for this examination and didn't do as well as you had hoped. "If only I had started studying sooner and gotten a good night's rest, I'd have done much better," you think to yourself. You have just engaged in...
Based on research by Becker and his colleagues (2007) presented by the authors of your text, which man's expression would be the fastest to decode?
An implicit personality theory is a type of
Seeing pictures of physcially attractive celebrities and models, many people in the US assume that these people are also intelligent, kind, or wealthy. Such assumptions illustrate the implicit personality theory held widely as a culture that
what is beautiful is good
Lixue and Hayk are in an unhappy marriage. When Hayk brings home flowers, Lixue thinks, "There must have been a sale at the grocery store" or "I suppose those are leftovers from some party at work." Her attribution reflects the attribution of a _______________ behavior to an _________________ cause.
The tendency to infer that people's behavior corresponds to or matches their underlying personality
fundamental attribution error
a group of pedestrians is standing on a corner, waiting for the light to change. A driver runs a red light and narrowly misses another car. According to work on the top two-step processes of making attributions, who is most likely to point out how quickly the light changed from amber to red when explaining the near accident.
Wesley, who is feeling alert and doesn't have a care in the world
According to research by Markus and Colleagues (2006), American Olympic gold medal winners are more likely to attribute their win to ____________ than japanese gold winners
Their own unique talents and abilities
"My happiness depends on the happieness of those around me" and "Ienjoy being unique and different from others in many respect" are two items from singelis's 1994 scale which was designed to measure individual differences in
independence and interdependence
It's halloween but you don't want to be running back and forth to the door. To avoid any "Tricks" you decide to leave a large container of candy on the portch. You've just read about self awareness theory, and you have a hunch about how to keep greedy trick or treaters from taking more than their fair share of the candy. you decide...
place a large mirror behind the candy, so the children can see themselves as they approach
While completing a personality test, craig comes to an item that asks him if he sees himself as shy and introverted. Craig reflects on some of his recent behavior. He reasons that since he generally does not talk much in class discussions and tends to avoid large parties, he must be shy and introverted. which of the following strategies for self-knowledge is craig using?
According to research mentioned in this chapter, when children initially enjoyed a game, then were rewarded for it, how did they later behave after the reward was removed
They gradually played the game less
Schachter's (1964) two-factor theory of emotion suggests that we first experience ___________ and then subsequently seeks to___________.
physiological arousal; Label the emotion appropriately
Recall that in a variation of his work with great apes, Gallup (1997) compared the ability of chimps reared in social groups and chimps reared in isolation to recognize themselves in the mirror. Gallup's results suggest that
for many primates, social interaction is crucial for developing a sense of self
When people make an upward social comparison, they are comparing themselves to...
somone who is better than they are
Attempting to get others to see you as you want to be seen is the deffintion of
Armand is very obsessed with his own death. He's worried about what he eats, the car he drives, whether he's going to be struck by lightning , ect. According to terror management theory, armand likely...
has low-self esteem
In a classic experiment, researchers (Aronson & Mettee, 1968) gave positive false feedback to some students, negative false feedback to some students, and no feedback to others. They are interested in seeing whether a boost to self-esteem would affect the likelihood of cheating. In this experiement what is the independent variable?
Type of feedback
Ying just purchased a very expensive wristwatch. She had debated for weeks about the merits of two different styles before making her final decision. It's now likely that Ying will...
emphasize all of the positive aspects of the chosen watch
Imagine that before the test, the professor told jake that if he is caught cheating he will be expelled. Imagine that the professor told Amanda that, if caught cheating, her only punishment will be to write a short paper about why cheating is wrong. If both students don't cheat, what would dissonance theory predict?
Amanda will feel more honest than jake will
Aronson and Mills (1959) performed an experiment in which college women were invited to join a discussion group about sex. In order to join the group, participants must undergo either a severe initiation, a mild initiation, or no initiation. Which of the following best describes this study's findings? Women who underwent ___________ initiation ejoyed the discussion the ___________________
a severe: most
When our behaviors are inconsistent with our values or beliefs, we are not likely to experience cognitive dissonance if...
we can point to external justifications for our behaviors
According to the principle of insufficient punishment, which of the following parental techniques should be most effective in changing a child's behavior permanently? (even the behavior that occurs in the absence of the parent?)
Threat of a mild punishment
In a study presented in the text, smokers were asked to create a anti-smoking video to be shown to high school students, invoking dissonance in the smokers. To alleviate this dissonance, what were these smokers more likley to do?
actually intend to quit smoking
Imagine that you have just moved into a house with four other people. One of your housemates, Tony, doesn't seem to like you all that much. If you were to make use of the Ben Franklin effect, what can you do to increase tony's liking for you?
Ask tony if he could give you a ride to the grocery store
Who is more likely to dehumanize the enemy in order to deal with cognitve dissonacne they are experiencing?
Victor, who threw a grenade into a market
______________ Attitudes are based on primarily on people's belief about properties of attitude objects
In all likelihood, attitdes toward________ are affectively based, and stem from __________
The death penalty; people's values
Jane is asked what kind of computer she prefers. She says, "Well, I always seem to be working on a Mac, so I guess I like them best." In this case, jane's attitudes appears to be...
According to the tenets of cognitive dissonance theory, people are more likley to change their attitudes when thet have ____________ justification for an attitude-descrepant behavior
Reza and Eyad are both salesmen. Eyad is more persuasive that Reza. According to research the Yale Attitude change approach he's probably _____________ than Reza
Who is more likely to use the central route to persuasion when attending to a communication about health insurance reform
James, who is undergoing extensive treatment after his auto accident
Sometimes when people want to pay attention to a message, they cannot. Which of the following is not something that would prohibit someone from paying attention to a message?
Having a high need for cognition
Research by x was described in the text. In the experiement, the researchers showed some smokers a graphic film about lung cancer and gave them a pamphlet with instructions on how to quit; other smokers recieved either the phamphlet alone or just watched the film. after 3 months those smokers who recieved only the pamphlet with instructions were smoking sig more than those who saw the film and got the pamphlet. What is the independent variable?
Type of intervention
When it comes to designing a persuasive message, the authors assert that "it is best to fight fire with fire."
It is effective to match the type of message appeal to the basis of attitude.
Researchers showed Americans and Koreans advertisement that stressed either independence or interdependence. They found that _________________ were persuaded most by ads that stressed ________________
In a persuasion study conducted by x, participants exposed to weak arguments that contradicted common knowledge or beliefs were _____________ likely to be persuaded by _________________ two days later
Less; Stronger arguments
You have observed that there is more litter around signs that say "$500 fine for littering" than around signs that they say "please keep our state clean." What social psychological theory would you use to explain this observation?
Researchers X studied the relationship between women's attitudes and their use of the birth control pill. They found that the best predictor of whether women were using birth control pill two years after reporting their attitudes was the women's...
attitude toward using birth control pills during the two year period
An advertising executive once noted about soft drink advertisements, "The thing about soda commericials is that they actually have nothing to say." By this he meant that...
soft drink companies often take an emotional approach to advertising
Which of the following is the most accurate statement about advertising?
People's beliefs about the power of different kinds of advertising are backwards. They don't think they are influenced much by regular advertising when they probably are, and they beleive they are influenced by subliminal advertising when they probably are not
Khadija has conformed to others' behaviors or attitudes because she believes that their interpretations of an ambiguous situation are more accurate than hers. ____________ has occured
Informational social influence
Even though Gerald isn't religious, when he attends church on Chirstmas with his family, he donates money when ushers pass around a collection basket because everyone else puts something in. It is likely that Gerald is...
Accordingto research x, participants were asked to select perpetrators after a lineup in conditions of high ambiguity; the perpetrator wore different clothing in the lineup that in the original photo and the slides were shown very quickly. Recall also that some participants were told that the task was one that was being designed for use by the police department and were offered 20 dollars if they were the most accurate, while others were told it was just a laboratory task under development. This study demonstrated that...
the more important it was to the participants to be more accurate , the more they conformed to the other group member's anwsers
First year college students are more suceptable than seniors to informal social influence bc...
The situations they encounter are ambiguous
Which of the following is an example of a socil norm in mainstream U.S. culture?
Using your turn signal to indicate which direction you will be turning
In a series of experiments, why did Soloman Asch ask participants to judge the lengths of lines that were clearly different from one another? Asch...
wanted to study conformity in unambiguous situations
Resaerch by x on the importance of accuracy indicates that the more important it is for people to be accurate, the
more likely people are to engage in informational conformity, but the less likely people are to engage in normative conformity
Kelsey has just joined a new ballet company in which thinness is of paramount importance in becoming a successful dancer. From martha she learns how important it is to remain painfullly thin. From Annette she learns that laxatives are useful tools for weight control. The first "lesson" represents ____________, wereas the second "lesson" represents _____________.
Normative social influence; informational social influence
You're designing an activity for your social psychology class and you want to maximize conformity. What should you do to make that happen?
Have the group size be 4-5
Researchers x conducted a meta-analyses of 133 Asch line-judgement studies conducted in 17 countries. They found that conformity was higher in _____________ cultures because normative social influence ________________.
Collectivist cultures: promotes harmony
__________ norms address people's perceptions of what other people approve of, whereas ______________________ address people's perceptions of what other people actually do
In a field study by x, several households in a neighborhood received weekly feedback about their level of energy consumption relative to their neighbors provided participants with ______________ norms.
Miligram surveyed both a panel of Yale undergraduates and a panel of psychology professors before he conducted his original experiment. In these surveys, he found that...
Most people predicted less than 1% of participants would go to 450 volts
The authors of your text note that across the studies that milligram did investigating obedience to authority, the one factor that never made a consistent difference in how participants behaved was...
pleas for help from the victim
Even though he authors point to a number of situational variables that contributed to the destructive obedience of Stanley Milgram's participants, it might still be argued that people have, lurking deep within them, sadistic tendencies that can easily be elicited by situational variables. What experimental findings by Milgram call this "Personal attribution" into question?
When participants could choose the level of shock, they administered very low levels