A set of assumptions about the substance of a theory and how scientists should test theories.
The process of determining the nature of someone's disorder and deciding that a person fits into a particular diagnostic category, such as schizophrenia or major depressive disorder.
The coexistence of two or more disorders at the same time.
The psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several causes.
A principle of psychopathology that holds that one cause can have multiple final manifestations. For instance, a traumatic event can have a different effect on every person that experiences it.
The extent to which a test or diagnosis yields consistent results. One measure of reliability is agreement among clinicians.
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
dividing line between normal from abnormal behavior
Personal distress (subjective), statistical norms (does not distinguish between harmful and unharmful behavior). Harmful dysfunction = 1. Something must not be working correctly and it must cause harm to the personas judged by the standard's of the person's culture.
laboratory tests to confirm the presence of psychopathology
"diagnosis" homosexuality in the DSM
In the first and second editions, it was diagnosed as a mental disorder. After the 1960s and the gay rights movement, it was removed from the DSM and other sexual disorders were revised.
difference between psychiatrists and psychologists
A type of associative learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior (Skinner).
Conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus, by repeated pairing with a stimulus that normally elicits a response, comes to elicit a similar or even identical response; aka Pavlovian conditioning.
reinforcement and punishment
brain chemical is the cause of a certain mental disorder
The process in which excess neurotransmitter molecules are reabsorbed by the sending neuron to be reused.
shared environmental experiences
An environmental factor that twins that leads to a high concordance rate.
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
dialectical behavior therapy
Cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at teaching problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, and skill at managing negative emotions. Commonly used for BPD patients.
Carl Rogers viewed three qualities
According to Rogers (1977), three characteristics of the therapist form the core part of the therapeutic relationship - congruence (authenticity), unconditional positive regard (UPR), and accurate empathic understanding (ability to understand client's feelings).
Consumers Reports survey of a. psychotherapy effectiveness b. findings of the concerning medications in treatment
Psychotherapy very effective. Psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers have equal effectiveness. Psychotherapy alone is equally effective as psychotherapy plus medication.
Gender differences in disorders
Gender roles affect our behavior. Women are more likely to be depressed and men are more likely to abuse alcohol.
Diathesis stress model
A diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a stressful event. Diathesis = predisposition toward disorder. Stress = a difficult experience.
Vaccinations and autism
MMR vaccines do not cause autism. Lots of fear was spread by a doctor that was funded by anti-MMR lawyers.
most likely theories for the cause of mental disorders
involve interactions between biological, psychological, and social systems.
How mental disorders are currently classified, based on...
National Comorbidity Survey
56% of patients with one disorder qualified for two or more. 14% of sample qualified for three or more. That group accounted for 90% of severe disorders in the study.
Rorschach test - let patients interpret ambiguous images to get at underlying causes of abnormal behavior. Favored by psychodynamic psychologists. Not valid/reliable.
1. What is the best description of abnormal psychology? a. A deviant personality trait b. Analysis of the childhood roots of pathology c. Study of unconscious influences on mental disorders d. Application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders
d. Application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders
1. Determining the presence of disorder is based on several criteria including, a. The duration of a person's symptoms b. The presence of a specific symptom in isolation c. A person's culture
a. The duration of a person's symptoms
1. Which publication contains the official criteria for diagnosing mental disorders? a. Physicians' Desk Reference b. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders c. Syndromes of Mental Disorders
b. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
1. The presence of more than one condition within the same time period is known as a. Twin diagnosis b. Comorbidity c. Confounded morbidity
1. The World Health Orgaization estimates all mental disorders combined account for __ percent of all disability worldwide a. Less than 1 b. 52 c. 28
1. Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest association between two variables? a. -.15 b. -.74 c. +.26
1. In the DSM-5, clinical disorders are defined largely in terms of
a. Compulsive behaviors b. Symptomatic behaviors Comorbidity
b. Symptomatic behaviors
1. Which of the following are contained in the current DSM categories of phobias? a. Linguistic, natural, and symbolic b. Neurotic, physical, and psychotic c. Agoraphobia, social, and specific
c. Agoraphobia, social, and specific
1. Iatrogenesis refers to a. State-dependent learning b. Inability to recognize faces c. Treatment that causes, not cures, a disorder
c. Treatment that causes, not cures, a disorder
1. Terry is unable to see, even though a medical examination reveals no physical problems with her eyes or brain. What is wrong a. Illness anxiety disorder b. Conversion disorder Psychosomatic disorder
b. Conversion disorder
1. Recognizing the adaptive, evolutionary aspects of stress, Walter Cannon viewed stress as the activation of the a. Caretaking response b. Autonomic nervous system c. Fight or flight response
c. Fight or flight response
1. Previous versions of the diagnostic manual used the term _____ to describe substance use disorders that were at least moderate in severity a. Substance abuse b. Substance dependence c. Anhedonia
a. Substance abuse
1. The incredible diversity of sexual experiences reported by his subjects led Alfred Kinsey to a. Reject the distinction between normal and abnormal sexual behavior b. Investigate the distinction between normal and abnormal sexual behavior c. Conclude that homosexuals and heterosexuals were fundamentally different
a. Reject the distinction between normal and abnormal sexual behavior
1. What can be concluded regarding the long-term effects of those who have been victims of early child sexual abuse? a. They almost always end up engaging in risky sexual behaviors b. They might not necessarily suffer any pervasive or intense negative consequences c. They become unable to establish any meaningful forms of reciprocal intimacy in a variety of situations and relationships
b. They might not necessarily suffer any pervasive or intense negative consequences
1. What does the social causation hypothesis propose as the cause of the high rate of schizophrenia in the lower classes in the United States? a. Inappropriate mothering b. Stressful events and poor health care c. High negative emotions in lower class families
b. Stressful events and poor health care
1. What is the major contribution of a developmental psychopathology perspective on children's problems? a. Developmental psychology offers greater focus on genetic factors b. Developmental psychology suggests ways that biological processes account for these types of problems c. Developmental psychology provides norms across the lifespan that can be used to determine whether a behavior is abnormal
c. Developmental psychology provides norms across the lifespan that can be used to determine whether a behavior is abnormal
1. Studies of the long-term benefits of psychostimulant medication for ADHD show a. Significant improvement in both learning and behavior b. No significant improvement in learning and behavior c. Improved learning but no improvement in behavior d. Improved behavior but no improvement in learning
b. No significant improvement in learning and behavior
1. American psychiatrist Thomas Szasz has taken the somewhat radical position that a. Even people who commit serious crimes should not be imprisoned if they are suffering from a mental disorder b. Even people who are seriously mentally ill should still be held responsible for their behavior c. That everyone who commits a crime is mentally ill to some degree
a. Even people who commit serious crimes should not be imprisoned if they are suffering from a mental disorder