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The process of encoding refers to:

getting information into memory

The process of getting information out of memory is called:


After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of:

retroactive iinterference

In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as:


The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the _____ effect

serial position

Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as the _____ effect.

automatic processing

Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as ______ is to _____.

meaning; imagery

In order to remember a list of the school supplies she needs, Marcy mentally visualizes each item at a certain location in her house. Marcy's tactic best illustrates the use of:

the method of loci

For a moment after hearing his dog's high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers had a vivid auditory impression of the dog's yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates _____ memory.


The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as:

long-term potentiation

When memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus was an adolescent, her uncle incorrectly insisted that as a child she had found her own mother's drowned body. Loftus herself later falsely recollected finding the body. This best illustrates:

the misinformation effect

Karl and Dee had a joyful wedding ceremony. After their painful divorce, however, they began to remember the wedding as a somewhat hectic and unpleasant event. Their recollections best illustrate the nature of:

memory construction

An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?


Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as:

the spacing effect

Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as:


The eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation is known as:

deja vu

Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly _____ bits of information.


Information learned while a person is _____ is best recalled when that person is _____.

drunk; drunk

After attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenly remembered details from others' traumatic life stories as part of her own life history. This best illustrates the dangers of:

source amnesia

Which of the following poses the greatest threat to the credibility of children's recollections of sexual abuse?

the misinformation effect

Your consciously activated by limited-capacity memory is called _____ memory.


Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results from a failure in:


The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called:

semantic encoding

The association of sadness with memories of negative life events contributes to:

mood-congruent memory

Who emphasized that we repress anxiety-arousing memories?


Austin can't remember Jack Smith's name because he wasn't paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austin's poor memory is best explained in terms of:

encoding failure

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called:

proactive interference

A type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-arousing memories are blocked from conscious awareness is known as:


Speed-reading complex material yields little long-term retention because it inhibits:


Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that one can do so best illustrates _____ memory.


To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers have characterized it as _____ memory.


An attorney uses misleading questions in an attempt to distort a court witness' recall of a previously observed crime. This best illustrates:

the misinformation effect

Dario Donatelli could recall more than 70 sequentially presented digits by using the techniques of:


Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of;


A mnemonic device is a:

memory aid

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