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peggy russell's class

Psychologists refer to the mental activities associated with processing, understanding, remembering, and communicating as


A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people is known as a(n)


Arnold had difficulty recognizing that bullfighting was a sport, because it failed to resemble his ___________ of a sport


To solve a problem, we often make use of a simple thinking strategy. This strategy will allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently by following a(n)


The hospital where Jack works has specific step-by-step procedures or _________________ for treating heart attack victims


A new televangelist is talking about today's difficult economy and how challenging raising children can be. He goes on to say that, like everyone, he has worries and bills, and seeks a better life. The televangelist is trying to be seen as a common person who relates to his audience by using the

representativeness heuristic

Prompt and clear feedback regarding your performance on a psychology practice test is most likely to inhibit


A potential source of irrationality is ______________, our tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contradictory evidence

belief perseverance

Jessica believes she can complete a term paper, start-to-finish, in two days and begins the paper two days before its due date. Unfortunately, once she begins, she realizes it will more likely take four or five days to complete. Her failure to accurately determine how long the assignment would take best illustrates


Some individuals have an amazing ability to remember things. For example, Russian Journalist Shereshevskii could remember up to _______ digits or words


Participants in a study conducted by Haber were shown more than 2,500 slides of faces and places for only 10 seconds each. Later, they were shown 280 of these slides, paired with an unseen slide, and they were able to recognize _______ percent of the slides they had seen before


Professor Wallace studies memory in people who have had strokes. Professor Hansen studies people who claim to have clear memories of events that happened over three decades ago. Such research on the extremes of memory

helps us to understand how memory works

___________ is a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, as well as information retrieved from long-term memory

working memory

Short-term memory is to _____________ as long-term memory is to

fleeting; permanent

Jamaal has to make an important phone call. Unfortunately, his cell phone is not charged and he has to use his landline, which does not store phone numbers. To make the call, he has to get the number from his cell phone and remember it long enough to dial on his landline. For this task, which memory systems is most important?

working memory

An understanding of the spacing effect provides insight into effective strategies for


Strange as it may seem, you have run into the same coworker four times today, in four different locations. You get a little nervous, wondering, is she following me? Your ability to unconsciously keep track of the number of times something happens to you is known as

automatic processing

Last year, Pierre and his family went on a camping trip. He has very fond memories of the time they spent cooking over the campfire, looking at the evening stars, and waking to the sound of birds singing. He does NOT recall the messiness of cleaning up after cooking, the cold as they viewed the stars, or how annoying he found the bird's singing after a sleepless night. This memory phenomenon is known as

rosy retrospection

Karl Lashley trained rats to solve a maze, and then removed pieces of their cortexes. He reported that, no matter what part of the cortex was removed, the rats retained partial memory of how to solve the maze. This indicates that

memories are not located in single, specific locations in the brain

To make a long-distance call, you have to dial an unfamiliar phone number. You are likely to have trouble retaining the number you just looked up. This best illustrates the limited capacity of ___________ memory


Oliver is trying to make an online purchase, but he doesn't have his credit card. He calls his wife, who reads the 16-digit credit card number to him. Unfortunately, Oliver cannot remember the number long enough to type it into the computer. This is because

short-term memory is limited in duration and capacity

We use retrieval cues to access target information. The best retrieval cues are the

All of these things are effective retrieval cues for the memory

Fill-in-the-blank test questions are to multiple-choice questions as

recall is to recognition

A multiple-choice test is a good example of


One reason our memories fail is because of problems with information


_______________ occurs when something you learned before interferes with your recall of something you learn later

Proactive interference

Events that are forgotten are like books that cannot be found in a library. Which of the following scenarios can BEST be used to explain the encoding problem?

The book was never purchased

After being verbally threatened by a person in a passing car, Teresa was asked if she recognized the MAN who was driving the car. Several hours later, Teresa mistakenly recalled that the driver was male rather than female. Teresa's experience best illustrates

the misinformation effect

Several months after watching a science fiction movie about space travel and alien abduction, Steve began to remember that aliens had abducted him and had subjected him to many of the horrors portrayed in the movie. His mistaken recall best illustrates

source amnesia

This occurs partly because visualizing something and actually perceiving it activate similar brain areas

imagination inflation

_______________ is often required for everyday tasks, which are frequently ill-defined, with multiple solutions

Practical intelligence

Willis again picked the wrong day to ask his boss for a day off, especially with the multimillion-dollar project proposal due in a couple of days. This best illustrates a lack of

emotional intelligence

Although Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her anger and responds to her sister's frustration with empathy. Her behavior best illustrates

emotional intelligence

Individuals with mental retardation at this level may progress to second-grade level academically, and they may support themselves by working in sheltered workshops


Sandra has been told that her infant has an extra chromosome 21 in his genetic makeup. This suggests that the infant

will suffer from Down syndrome

A local think tank has been tracking performance on intelligence tests over the last 70 years. Like other researchers tracking such data, they have found that their sample has been subject to the Flynn effect. This indicates that

intelligence test performance has been improving

_______________ observed the dramatic effects of early experiences and demonstrated the impact of early intervention in an Iranian orphanage


Sarah comes from a loving but poor family. Her family wants her to do well in school, and she is in this type of program to boost her cognitive and social skills

Project Head Start

_______________ refers to the extent to which differences among people are attributed to genes


Women have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of

stereotype threat

Stereotype threat is most likely to depress female students' performance on a difficult ____________ test and to depress male students' performance on a difficult ____________ test

math problem solving; verbal fluency

In terms of gender differences in intellectual abilities, boys

outnumber girls in special education classes, talk later than girls, and scored higher in math problem solving in 20 of 21 countries


The persistence of learning over time

three processes of memory

encoding, storage, and retrieval

types of sensory memory

iconic, echoic, hepatic

iconic memory

sensed by the eyes. It lasts 0.5 seconds.

echoic memory

sensed by the ears. It lasts 3-4 seconds


sensed by touch. It lasts longer than 1 minute

working/short-term memory

lasts about 20 seconds. It can hold 7 plus or minus two bits of information.

long term memory

essentially unlimited and lasts forever

what information do we automatically process?

things about our day's events (such as breakfast); things about space (where on a page something is); time; frequency

effortful processing

Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories; usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition


The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1,
the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.


mental pictures; are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding


organizing items into familiar, manageable units (phone numbers); often occurs automatically; use of acronyms


Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories

spacing effect

we retain information better when we rehearse over time (studying minutes a day for 6 days is better than studying 3 hours in one day alone).

next-in-line effect

We tend to forget the information that comes right before we have to perform because we fail to encode it (icebreakers in class).

serial position effect

When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items

what did Ebbinghaus learn from his study?

He used nonsense syllables to study rehearsal. The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1,
the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.

semantic encoding

encoding of meaning; including meaning of words

auditory encoding

encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

visual encoding

encoding of picture images

explicit memory

refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare.
Processed in hippocampus.
Facts and personally experienced events.

implicit memory

involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what he/she knows.
Processed mostly in cerebellum.
Motor & cognitive skills and classical & operant conditioning effects.

retrieval cues

Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory.


The process of activating a retrieval cue to retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations.

motivated forgetting

People unknowingly revise their memories.


A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

retroactive interference

Disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information.
Learning French in college causes you to misremember the Spanish you learned in high school.

proactive interference

Prior learning interfering with the learning of new information.
Having difficulty remembering your parents' new phone number.

source amnesia

Attributing an event to the wrong source that we experienced, heard, read, or imagined (AKA misattribution).

misinformation effect

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.


mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.


methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone use of heuristics.


Rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently.
Usually speedier than algorithms.
More error-prone than algorithms.


involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem

confirmation bias

A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias.
2-4-6-.....You tend to expect 8 to be the next in line.


An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. This impedes problem solving.

functional fixedness

Tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions.
Impediment to problem solving.
Not thinking of a purse as a potential weapon.

representativeness heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, a particular prototype.

availability heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory.
Ex: we hear about shark attacks more than every car crash so we tend to think they happen more often than car accidents even though they do not.

belief perseverance

the tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence.

framing effect

Marketing something as 75% lean rather than 25% fat to make it sound better.

mild retardation

affects 85% of the people with retardation.
May achieve up to sixth grade level academically.

moderate retardation

affects 10% of people with retardation.
May achieve up to second grade level academically.

severe retardation

affects 3-4% of people with retardation.
May learn to talk and perform simple tasks under close supervision.

profound retardation

affects 2% of people with retardation.
People require constant aid and supervision.

range of intelligence scores from 85 - 115 represents what percentage of the population?


range of intelligence scores from 70 - 130 represents what percentage of the population?


range of intelligence scores from 55 - 145 represents what percentage of the population?



when a test yields consistent results


refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict

content validity

Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait.

predictive validity

Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait.

how do we know that intelligence is hereditary?

Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence.
EX: identical twins separated at birth tend to have extremely similar IQ scores.

Studies of twins and adopted children show what about the importance of environmental influences on intelligence?

Fraternal twins raised together tend to show similarity in intelligence scores.
Identical twins raised apart show slightly less similarity in their intelligence scores.

Who is better at spelling: men or women?


Who is better at locating objects: men or women?


Who has a larger vocabulary: men or women?


Who is more sensitive to touch, taste, and color: men or women?


Who has the most underachievement: men or women?


who has better math abilities: men or women?

Boys outperform girls at math problem solving, but underperform at math computation

who detects emotions more easily: men or women?


Flynn effect

In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points.

To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of _____.

An algorithm

Pablo vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates ______.

functional fixedness

Problem solving is one type of cognitive activity in which we all engage. Which of the following cognitive tendencies is seen to be an obstacle to problem solving?
availability heuristic
confirmation bias

confirmation bias

Maintaining one's conceptions even after the basis on which they have been formed has been discredited is known as _______.

belief perseverance

A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly attempting to take advantage of ______.

the representativeness heuristic

Advertisers know that a thirty-three percent discount sounds like a better deal than a discount of one third. This best illustrates ______.


You are applying for a job as a salesperson for a large cell phone company. You are given a battery of tests. Which of the following might be best in determining your ability to succeed in this job?
A test of emotional intelligence
A test of creativity
A traditional IQ test
A polygraph test

A test of emotional intelligence

Which of the following is NOT included as a part of today's general definition of intelligence?
The ability to solve problems
The ability to use knowledge to adapt to new situations
The ability to understand people and emotions
The ability to learn from experience

the ability to understand people and emotions

Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as ______.

savant syndrome

When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her own anger and responds with empathy to her sister's frustration regarding their dispute. Her behavior best illustrates _____.

emotional intelligence

In developing the first intelligence test, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed a measure of a child's _____.

mental age

Mary's bathroom scale always overstates people's actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has ______ reliability and _______ validity.

high; low

Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin's classic three-stage model of memory includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
Short-term memory
Long-term memory
Flashbulb memory
Sensory memory

flashbulb memory

When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impossible not to register the meanings of the words. This best illustrates the importance of _____.

automatic processing

According to the serial position effect, you will remember more _____.

items at the beginning and end of a list, than in the middle

Which of the following processes is likely to result in the best memory for words?
Visual encoding
Acoustic encoding
Rote memorization
Semantic encoding

semantic encoding

Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?
A mental age of one's best friend
The date of one's own birth
A conditioned fear of guns
One's own name

A conditioned fear of guns

Priming refers to ______.

the activation of associations in memory

each of the following "sins of memory" involves distortion, EXCEPT:


The reason most North Americans cannot accurately describe the head of a penny is due to _____.

encoding failure

After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adam's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates ______.

encoding failure

During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates ______.

proactive interference

The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve ____.

memory construction

What would be predicted by Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve? Several years after learning the dates of important historical events for a college class, students _____.

will have forgotten most of the dates, but what they do remember, they'll remember for years to come.

You are used to driving a car with a standard shift. Today you are driving a friend's car that has an automatic transmission. As you drive, you keep trying to shift gears, but there is no shift. This tendency is most likely due to ______.

proactive interference

We have all had the experience of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. We are asked to remember someone's name. We are certain that we know the name and feel as if we are just about to remember it, yet it remains elusive. What type of forgetting might be at work here?

retrieval failure

As a child, Theo often looked at a picture album that included photos of a family reunion. Although Theo had not attended the reunion because he had been ill, he remembers being there. Theo's mistake best illustrates the "sin" of _____.


Which of the following is TRUE?
People underestimate the accuracy of their judgements
People pay closest attention to information that disconfirms what they believe
It is difficult for most people to explain away their failures
People are overconfident about how they will perform on various tasks

People are overconfident about how they will perform on various tasks

_______ is the most common level of mental retardation.


The similarity between the intelligence test scores of nontwin siblings reared together is _______.

greater than that between unrelated adoptive siblings reared together

savant syndrome lends support to which theory of intelligence?

Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences

Some people appear to be self-aware, manage conflicts well, and generally seem to be well equipped to handle most social and emotional situations very well. What type of intelligence does this seem to reflect?

emotional intelligence

Creativity is often seen as a valuable skill that seems to be related to intelligence. Which of the following is NOT considered a component of creativity?

high score on IQ tests

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