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Reformatory Era

This correctional era advocated an environment that emphasized reformation, education, and vocational programs,an focused offenders' attention on the future.

Code of Hammurabi

one of the earliest known penal codes

The Classical School

What theory links crime causation to punishment, based on offenders' free will and hedonism?

Irish System

The stages of this system were solitary confinement, special prison, open institutions, and ticket of leave.


Enforced idieness, lack of professional programs, and excessive size and overcrowding of prisons is characteristic of the Period of -----.

What happens to the number of clients processed and managed by the criminal justice system each year?

it increases

Auburn System

This system was known as the "congregate and silent" system.

How do correctional agencies achieve the short-term protection of society?

rehabilitating offenders, detaining inmates in jail or incarcerating them in prison, and granting bail.


is the correctional goal emphasizing the infliction of pain or suffering.


The existence of physical features common the early stages of human evolution.

penal code

A legislative authorization to provide a specific range of punishment for a specific crime?

bond system

Early colonial bail system enabled the rich to pay a fee and be released.

Cesare Beccaria

18th-century theorist is recognized as the founder of the Classical School of criminology.

Positive School

The belief that criminals do not have complete choice over their criminal actions and may commit acts that are beyond their control.

Hedonistic calculus

Idea that the main objective of an intelligent person is to achieve the most pleasure and the least pain is part of the____________.

Medical Model

The ______is a theory of corrections that offenders were sick and needed to be diagnosed and treated.

The threee governmental levels of corectional system are

federal, state, local

Industrial prison

Era, from1910-1935, emphasized inmate manufacture of products that could help to make the prisons self-sustaining.


The effect of _______ on an individual offender that prevents that person from committing future crimes is specific deterrence.

Cesare Lombroso

This Italian physician concluded that criminal had traits that made them throwbacks to earlier stages of evolution.

Jeremy Bentham

This theorist suggested that criminal laws should be organixed so that the punishment for any act would outweigh the pleasure that would be derived from the act.

Walnut Street Jail

The first prison designed to house sentenced offenders in the United States?

Correctional policy analysts

The term for correctioanl staff who aid in the policy development process.

During the 1950's, the rehabilitation of offendrs replaced punishmet as the penal system's primary objective.



England used transportation in the 17th and 18th centuries to remove criminal from society by sending them to its_____.

How do correctional agencies fulfill their mission?

Assistin courts int he decision to grant bail, imprisoning offenders who receive a sentence of incarceration from the courts, supervising offenders in the community under court jurisdiction.

General deterrence presumes that others in sociey will not commit crimes because they see that there is a punishment for such acts and that individuals receive the prescribed punishments.



Defined as the range of community and institutional sanctions, treatment programs, and services for managing criminal offenders.

The amount of money that criminal justice agencies receive has expanded exponentially.


John Howard

Sherriff of Bedfordshire, England, encouraged reform of English jails in the late 1700s.

The United States has a single, nationwide system of corrections.


Problem with the Pennsylvania system

Had low productivity, Made inmates mentally ill, and was expensive

What did the Quakers' criminal code include?

Free food and lodging for inmates

School recognized that there was much ground between total free will and determinism.

Neoclassical School

the three major components of the ciminal justice system are

police, courts, corrections


The study of punishment

Pennsylvanisa's first two prisons wher the Eastern State Penitentiary and the

None of the above

From 1991-2000, crime decreased significantly


Hands-off doctrine

The avoidance of judicial intervention in the operation of prisons and the judgment of correctional administrators.

The original features of the Pennsylvania system included

seperation, silence, and reformation of inmates and NOT:working with other inmates

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