Terms in this set (54)

  • Eumetazoa
    the clade of animals that contain true tissues; includes all animals except sponges
  • Porifera
    sessile animals that lack true tissues; have choanocytes; include the sponges
  • Cnidaria
    animals with a diploblastic, radially symmetrical body plan that includes a gastrovascular cavity with a single opening; contain unique stinging structures housed in specialized cells; includes the corals, jellies, and hydras
  • Medusozoa
    the clade that includes all cnidarians that produce a medusa
  • Scyphozoa
    the specific clade of cnidarians that includes the jellies; spend the majority of their life cycles in the medusa stage
  • Cubozoa
    the specific clade of cnidarians that includes the box jellies; includes the sea wasp, one of the deadliest organisms on Earth
  • Hydrozoa
    the specific clade of cnidarians that includes hydra and Obelia; most alternate between polyp and medusa forms
  • Anthozoa
    the specific clade of cnidarians that includes corals and sea anemones; occur only as solitary or colonial polyps
  • Bilateria
    the large clade of animals with bilateral symmetry and three germ layers
  • Lophotrochozoa
    one of three main clades of bilaterian animals, whose members contain a unique crown of ciliated tentacles used for feeding; coelomates
  • Platyhelminthes
    the phylum that includes the flatworms; dorsoventrally flattened acoelomates; have bilateral symmetry and a central nervous system with sensory structures; no body cavity or specialized organs for circulation
  • planarians
    free-living flatworms found in ponds and streams
  • trematodes
    parasitic flatworms called flukes with complex life cycles requiring an intermediate host that alternate between sexual and asexual stages
  • tapeworms
    parasitic flatworms having an anterior scolex armed with suckers and hooks and a long ribbon of body sections called proglottids
  • Rotifera
    a phylum of microscopic animals with specialized organ systems, a complete digestive tract, a pseudocoelom, and a crown of cilia that draws a vortex of water into the mouth
  • ectoprocts
    sessile, colonial lophophorates covered by a tough exoskeleton; also called bryozoans
  • brachiopods
    marine lophophorates with a hinged shell divided into dorsal and ventral halves; most have a unique stalk that anchors them to their substrate; also called lamp shells; often mistaken for clams
  • Mollusca
    the phylum with animals having a soft body that is often protected by a hard shell; coelomates with three main body parts (foot, visceral mass, mantle); includes the snails, clams, squids, and octopuses
  • Gastropoda
    the specific clade of mollusc that includes the snails and slugs
  • Bivalvia
    the specific clade of mollusc that includes the clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops
  • Cephalopoda
    the specific clade of mollusc that includes the squids, octopuses, cuttlefishes, and chambered nautiluses
  • Polyplacophora
    the specific clade of mollusc that includes the chitons
  • Annelida
    the phylum of worms with segmented bodies; coelomates
  • Polychaeta
    the traditional name for the largest group of annelids; have parapodia; can be both errant and sedentary; include the bristleworms
  • Oligochaeta
    the traditional name for the group of annelids that have few bristles; includes the earthworms
  • Hirudinea
    the traditional name for the group of annelids that includes the leeches
  • Errantia
    a clade including the more mobile annelids; many have paddle-like parapodia that function as gills and aid locomotion; include most worms that were traditionally called polychaetes; most are marine
  • Sedentaria
    a clade of less mobile annelids; some burrow into the substrate, while others live in protective tubes; often have elaborate gills or tentacles used for filter-feeding
  • Ecdysozoa
    one of the three main clades of bilaterian animals; many shed their tough external cuticle as they grow in a process called molting; includes the nematodes and arthropods
  • Nematoda
    the phylum of worms that are enormously abundant and diverse in the soil and in aquatic habitats; many parasitize plants and animals; cylindrical bodies covered with a tough cuticle; pseudocoelomates; body with tapered ends; no circulatory system; undergo molting; includes the roundworms
  • Arthropoda
    the phylum that includes the vast majority of known animal species, such as insects, crustaceans, and arachnids; coelomates with a segmented body, exoskeleton made of chitin and protein, and jointed appendages
  • Chelicerata
    a clade of arthropods that possess claw-like feeding appendages which serve as pincers or fangs; have an anterior cephalothorax and a posterior abdomen; no antennae; most have simple eyes; includes the eurypterids and arachnids
  • Eurypterids
    the earliest clade of chelicerates; includes the water scorpions
  • Arachnids
    the clade of chelicerates that includes spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites; have six pairs of appendages: chelicerae, pedipalps, and four pairs of walking legs
  • Myriapods
    the clade of arthropods that includes millipedes and centipedes
  • Crustacea
    the clade of arthropods that includes crabs, lobsters, shrimps, and barnacles
  • Decapods
    the clade of relatively large crustaceans that include lobsters, crayfishes, crabs, and shrimps
  • Copepods
    the clade of planktonic crustaceans that are important members of marine and freshwater plankton communities; include grazers and predators
  • Hexapoda
    an enormous clade of arthropods that include insects; have three pairs of jointed legs
  • Coleoptera
    an order of insects that include beetles; have two pairs of wings, one thick and stiff, the other membranous; have an armored exoskeleton and mouthparts adapted for biting and chewing; have complete metamorphosis
  • Diptera
    an order of insects that include the flies and mosquitoes; have one pair of wings; have mouthparts adapted for sucking, piercing, or lapping; live as scavengers, predators, and parasites; have complete metamorphosis
  • Lepidoptera
    an order of insects that include the butterflies and moths; have two pairs of wings covered with tiny scales; have a long proboscis that they uncurl when feeding on nectar; others feed on animal blood or tears; have complete metamorphosis
  • Hemiptera
    an order of insects that include the "true bugs" such as stink bugs, bed bugs, and assassin bugs; have two pairs of wings, one pair partly leathery, the other pair membranous; have piercing or sucking mouthparts; have incomplete metamorphosis
  • Orthoptera
    an order of insects that include grasshoppers and crickets; most herbivorous; have large hind legs adapted for jumping; have two pairs of wings (one leathery, one membranous); have biting or chewing mouthparts; have incomplete metamorphosis
  • Deuterostomia
    one of the three main clades of bilaterian animals; have radial cleavage and formation of the anus from the blastopore; includes the echinoderms and chordates
  • Echinodermata
    the phylum that includes sand dollars, sea stars, and sea urchins; all marine; coelomates with bilaterally symmetrical larvae; adults have a five-part organizational plan; unique water vascular system; endoskeleton
  • Chordata
    the phylum that includes two basal groups of invertebrates, the lancelets and tunicates; most members have a backbone; coelomates with notochord; dorsal hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits; post-anal tail
  • Tardigrada
    the clade of animals known as water bears for their rounded shape, stubby appendages, and lumbering gait; most less than 0.5 mm in length; enter a state of dormancy in harsh conditions
  • Asteroidea
    the clade of echinoderms that includes the sea stars and sea daisies
  • Ophiuroidea
    the clade of echinoderms that includes the brittle stars
  • Echinoidea
    the clade of echinoderms that includes the sea urchins and sand dollars
  • Crinoidea
    the clade of echinoderms that includes the sea lilies and feather stars
  • Holothuroidea
    the clade of echinoderms that includes the sea cucumbers
  • Hymenoptera
    an order of highly social insects that include ants, bees, and wasps; have two pairs of membranous wings; a mobile head; chewing or sucking mouthparts; females often have posterior stinger; many build elaborate nests