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Terms in this set (68)
The scientific study of the reciprocal influence of the individual and his or her social context (Manstead and Hewstone, 1995)
Looking for key themes within the narrative
Studying how people communicate with each other and their interpersonal dynamics, e.g. giving two different recollections of scenarios.
Systematically using transcripts grouped and clustered in order to look at emerging conceptual categories in the data, in order to then make a theory.
Quantitative content analysis
Comprise a list of things to look for and count them.
Social learning approach
Behaviour is acquired through learning and socialisation.
Evolutionary social psychology
Our brains have evolved to enhance reproductive success, therefore behaviour has genetic underpinnings.
1. Recombination in gametosis, crossing over, mutation
2. Sexual reproduction (variety in mates)
Natural selection - better at surviving
Sexual selection - better at finding a mate
Evolved across species
Development of organism, e.g. reproductive systems shaped by hormones.
Magnitude of difference (d)
(Male average - female average) / Pooled SD
Square root of SD^2 (male) + SD^2 (female) / 2
Standard social science model
'The blank slate' - differences between people arise from differences in experience and culture, the mind is general-purpose cognitive device for learning.
Boys and girls encouraged and rewarded for different behaviours. However, Lytton and Romney found no support for this except sex-typed toys and chores.
Bandura's social learning theory
Model same sex parent.
Gender schema theory
Attend to gender typed information as schema develops.
Social Role Theory (Eagly, 1987)
Culturally imposed gender division in labour
-> Conform to gender stereotypes
-> sex typed skills and beliefs
Sex differences in behaviour
Members of one sex prefer traits in the other
Some traits make an individual competing against members of their own sex
Biosocial interaction theory for gender
Nature sets limits to sexual identity, and within these limits, social forces interact and gender roles are formulated
Gene-environment interaction. Genes create a finite number of options for the environment to refine.
Advantages of friends
Health (fewer relationships, more likely to die)
Cooperation (trading, hunting, warfare)
Cultural transmission (20% waking time in conversation, 1:2+ relationship building)
Conformity that occurs due to the desire to be correct. Participants picked the wrong answer because everyone else did and thought that the others knew something they didn't.
What determines friendship
Proximity (e.g. mere exposure effect; propinquity and opportunity for interaction; expectation of interaction)
Balance theory (Heider, 1958; Newcomb, 1961)
If both agree/disagree on a matter = positive relationship. If feel different ways about a matter = negative relationship.
Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954)
Similarity to others validates our own beliefs
Genetic similarity theory (Rushton, 1989)
Correlation between heritability of trait and friend similarity r = .40 - adaptive value of associating with similar others.
Social exchange theory
Profitable relationship = Outcomes = rewards - costs
Satisfaction = Outcome - CL
Dependence = Outcome - CLalt
People are motivated by self interest. They feel most comfortable when they have what they deserve (not more/less). Both partners want fairness, inequity causes distress, and partners want to restore equity.
P1 rewards/P1 costs = P2 rewards/P2 costs
Sexual strategies theory (Bus and Schmitt)
In short term relationships, males prioritise female's fertility and proceptivity, but females prioritise good genes. In long term relationships, males prioritise females youth, fertility, faithfulness but females prioritise resources, status and generosity.
Pawlowski and Dunbar, 1999 - explicit male advertisements, women say what they want and men say what they have. Older women make less requests, younger women specify age = fertility.
Human mating patterns: honest advertising
Sexually selected features show how high quality an individual is. Costly handicap leads to ____, else you would be dead or not attractive to mates.
Human mating patterns: direct indicator of health
Hamilton and Zuk - not a handicap, a ____. E.g. in peacocks, the more parasites the individual has, the less beautiful the tail.
Human mating patterns: immunocompetence
Folstad and Karter (1996) a well functioning immune system shows that the individual has good genes. Testosterone - increases secondary sexual characteristics but also reduces immunocompetence.
Human mating patterns: averageness
Shows good genetic quality, healthier, lower mutation rates.
Humans and symmetry
Gangestad and Thornhill, 1999 - relationship specific investment inventory - more symmetry, less relationship building and more uncommitted sexual behaviour.
Little et al, 2001 - more attractive females prefer more symmetrical male partners.
Organisms use parents as a model for mate preferences in adulthood. Perrett - partner's similarity to opposite sex parent, form schema of opposite sex face with parent as model. Imprinting as an evolutionary adaptation or by-product of visual system.
Find mates that look similar to themselves, likely to have similar genes, and keep good gene complexes together in lineage therefore have more relatedness to own offspring. Higher genetic fitness.
Types of aggression
Verbal vs. physical
Direct vs indirect
Instrumental or expressive (goal-orientated or expressing anger)
Psychoanalytic theory of expressive aggression (Freud)
Weak ego unable to balance id and supergeo, resulting conflict leads to aggression. May also be destructive behaviour due to the death drive, seeking catharsis.
Frustration aggression theory of expressive aggression (Dollard et al, 1939)
Aggression is the response to frustration of not being able to reach a goal. Degree of aggression depends on whether aggression will solve the problem and whether a subsequent account of aggression could lower frustration e.g. apology.
Cognitive neo-association theory (Berkowitz, 1989)
Frustrations produce aggression because they are unpleasant. E.g. violence peaks when temperature highest, more opportunities - greater time outside, more interactions with public, hot and uncomfortable so frustration becomes aggression.
Social learning theory of instrumental aggression
Operant conditioning - positive reinforcement for aggressing and so repeat the behaviour to get what they want. Model adult behaviours (Bandura, Ross and Ross, Bobo doll study).
The role of the media in instrumental aggression
Children learn from videogames, movies, etc. Jay et al found TV increased aggression. Anderson and Bushman 2001 found that videogames increase aggressive behaviour and decrease prosocial arousal, and increase arousal. Arousal misinterpreted as frustration?
But some say that people who believe in catharsis are drawn to violent games.
Honour cultures and instrumental aggression (Nisbett, 1993)
Aggression to maintain face. Depends on status and what you stand to gain or lose. Cohen et al, study where white males accidentally bumped into/insulted by confederate. Southerners showed rise in cortisol, testosterone and dominating behaviour.
Symbolic interactionist approach
People act on what they believe, not just what they know to be objectively true. Rules of conversation require cooperation, mutual facework within interactions to show respect and avoid violence.
Evolutionary approach to aggression (Campbell)
Women aggress less than men because infants' survival more dependent on mother's presence. High risk and low gain. Women have more fear of injury, more blood and animal phobias than men and rate scenarios as more risky than men. Use indirect aggression to achieve the same means safely.
Hypothalamus and aggression
Responsible for producing sex hormones, which affects inhibitory control and executive functions. Feature of ADHD and CD, which are both thought to be frontal lobe defects, also sex-biased disorders. Testosterone in rats reduced inhibitory control.
5 steps to emergency intervention (Latane and Darley, 1970)
Recognise emergency; Interpret the emergency; Take responsibility for providing help; Decide how to help; Power to help.
Pluralistic ignorance in Latane and Darley (1970) study
Participants complete questionnaire alone/with two others; smoke enters room; timed how long it took them to leave. When alone, 50% left the room in 2 minutes, and 75% left in 6 minutes. When with others, 12% left room after 2 minutes, 38% left after 6 minutes.
We look to others to define ambiguous events
Diffusion of responsibility in Latane and Darley (1968) study
Participants in cubicles, having discussion with headphones on. 1 confederate has an epileptic fit. If only the victim and participant in conversation, 85% helped within 60 seconds.
V + P + 2 confederates = 62% within 60 seconds
V + P + 4 confederates = 31% within 60 seconds
Diffusion of responsibility
Responsibility is divided by the number of people present
Bystander effect reduced when...
There is clear danger (i.e. no ambiguity, perpetrator present, solution requires cooperation). More arousal, more helping.
Bystander effect increased when...
Females or strangers are present; takes place in the laboratory rather than the field; increased number of bystanders.
Evolution and helping
It makes no sense to risk your life for someone who is not related to you; helping is typically more costing that non-helping, therefore non-helping people should be more prevalent in subsequent generations and pass on genes.
Organisms favour the reproductive success of their relatives, even at expense of own life. Coefficient of genetic relatedness and altruism - more related, more altruistic.
Delayed payback of altruism (Trivers, 1971)
Benefit of recipient is high (e.g. parasites removed); cost to donor low (e.g. grooming); likelihood that positions will be reversed in future.
C < Br
(RS cost to me < RS benefit to you x our relatedness)
R = genetic relatedness of recipient to the actor
B = additional reproductive benefit gained by recipient of act
C = reproductive cost to individual
Conditions for reciprocal altruism
Social species; stable groups; good face recognition; good LTM; non-cooperation or punishment for defectors.
A small number of cheaters can benefit, however if there are too many people cheating, you end up cheating on each other.
Emotional mediation and reciprocity
Obligation, gratitude = feel we should reciprocate
Guilt, anger = feel we have to/makes us reciprocate
Cheated = anger, don't want to cooperate with them again
Catharsis: Berkowitz study
Experiment: give other p's shocks, or thought they were, to release negative tensions and built up aggression, but these acts simply increased aggression - didn't work.
Catharsis: Patterson study
American footballers, aggressive game should release negative energy, but footballers became more aggressive as season went on.
Catharsis: Russell - Spectator hostility
Watching aggressive sport should act as catharsis, as let out pent-up aggression through cheering, but hostility actually increases during a match.
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