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a. Researchers have to decide whether to brave the cold or call it quits and go home and stand in front of a heater
i. At the same time the baboons just shrug it off
b. Studying how the baboons and their environment interact
c. Baboons are a keystone species bc they are relatively easy to habituate and are widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and show remarkable tolerance (can go from hot and wet tropical woodland to hot, dry desert, to cold and wet grassland)
d. Social structure and dynamics were responses to specific features in the environment
e. Females in mountain baboon troops rarely contest resources so the researchers were not able to allocate dominance ranks to their subjects
i. Grasslands don't provide food worth fighting for
f. Grooming as "social glue" bonding females in anticipation of support during inevitable fights over scarce resources (but since there isn't aggression here, why do females still groom?)
i. Continued simply bc they needed to be groomed
ii. Wanted to see if the amount of grooming matched the amount received
1. Hard to test though!
2. Immediate reciprocation?
g. "Prisoner's dilemma" = high likelihood of cheating instead of mutually beneficial changes
h. Stopped field work bc of an unanticipated and unpleasant incident
i. Get through field work by snacking/eating
j. Housing bought out by reserve staff for researchers to use
k. Transportation by foot mainly because cars so expensive
i. Trashed the car they got
l. Baboon females attracted to young infants but moms won't let them out of their grip; females solve dilemma by grooming mothers and then the infant for a few minutes
m. Lots of info on 114-5
n. Males becoming conservative, at least in restricting the timing of their matings to the most likely times for conception (to avoid sexual conflict)
o. 1/3 of all offspring had sub males as fathers (bc alpha males simply didn't pursue every opportunity to monopolize receptive females)
i. The more males in the troop, the more stressed the alpha male and the likelier that he takes up consortships
p. Rangers and wardens never cared to spend time with baboons, but they tried telling researchers what they though they ought to know about the baboons
i. New warden brought two dogs he let roam freely, when one chased an infant baboon the protective male ripped one to pieces and chased the other off
ii. Warden then shot the baboon to "teach them a lessen"
q. Had to rebrand the park as a tourist spot for funding
i. Increasing conflict between baboons over human garbage
a. One of its members spent more than a decade as an environmental activist for a tree-hugging nonprofit. Another studied Arctic oceanography in Germany. Their commander is a former high school science teacher.
b. Fighting deforestation, gold prospecting, bush meat hunting, clandestine logging and animal smuggling with brains and boots
c. Deforestation is surging once again in the Brazilian Amazon, climbing 29 percent between August 2015 and July 2016. Nearly two million acres of forest were destroyed during the period, according to estimates by the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil
d. You have to see the Amazon from above to get a sense of how much of it has already been devastated
e. GEF includes forestry engineers, a wildlife biologist, a fisheries specialist, even someone who used to work in advertising
f. a punishing survival course in which candidates endure jumping out of helicopters, protracted treks through the jungle, foraging for food, treating snakebites, going for long stretches without food and sleep, and training for gun battles and knife fights
g. environmental activists argue that a major reason for resurgent deforestation in Brazil involves efforts to reduce Ibama's sway, drawing parallels with the Trump administration's plans to overhaul the Environmental Protection Agency
h. fear of retribution if their identities are made public
i. setting things on fire like illegal logging trucks, sawmills, etc
j. "But this is war, and war can open your eyes to what needs to be done."
a. Baboon males are "bullying hooligans"
b. Males can sometimes get close with females, but they remain dominant and express affection through threats and violent chases
c. Female baboons almost never form alliances against a male, unless he's attacking their infants
d. Female philopatry, male transfer?
e. Females are tranquil, subtle, complex (surviving more than 20yrs) while male lives are nasty, brutish and short
f. Youngest infant known to survive mother's death was nine months old when mom died (rely on mom for one yr typically)
g. Males weigh 2x as much as females by they are fully adult (F ~6 M~9yrs)
h. Linear, transitive dominance hierarchy
i. Signals of competitive ability almost impossible to fake
j. Wahoo calls take a lot of energy, contest goes until everyone drops out bc of exhaustion except for one
i. Only high ranking males enter contests
k. One male moved up and down the hierarchy seven times over a 12 month period
l. Once a male reaches adult size there is little relation between size and rank and size and quality of wahoo displays
i. Fighting ability appears to be related more to skill than size
m. Rank translates into reproductive success
i. Alpha male accounts for majority of matings
n. Consorting pairs often move to edge of group to reduce risk of takeover
o. Considerable amount of "sneaky" mating by non-alpha males (paternity derived from fecal samples!!!)
p. Instability in dom hierarchy is single most important cause of stress in male baboons
q. Arrival of new immigrant male disrupts everything
i. Youngsters inspect him, boldly race up to him, stare and present butts as sign of submission
ii. Adult males more seriously upset (assess from distance and wait for a wahoo or yawn to reveal his fighting ability)
iii. Immigrant is also making similar assessments (tries to get friendly with females and juveniles by grunting and lipsmacking)
iv. Most dramatic reactions come from lactating females who raise their tails, grab their infants, and race aware screaming when he approaches (immigrant males often commit infanticide if raised to alpha male position)
r. Infanticide is a sexually selected trait that enhances a male's fitness
s. Lactating females will form a close "friendship" with a resident adult male to protect young from infanticide
i. Friendships persist as long as a year while sexual consortships only last for several days
ii. Friendships are largely the work of females (follow male and remains as close as possible to him)
iii. Benefits females because infants represent large proportion of female's lifetime RS, benefits male if there is a chance the infant he is defending is his own
iv. Once an infant dies or is weaned the friendship ends abruptly, but the male may continue to defend the juvenile
1. Adult males like Pied Piper, being followed by all the children of his friendships
a. Grooming to strengthen relationships
b. Matrilineal bonds = kin selection
c. Just because they have a bond doesn't mean they'll always protect them (example of sub female who wouldn't move out of way, none of her kin came to her aid)
d. Threats and fights far less common
i. Usually takes form of supplanting (pg 65)
e. Higher ranking females not necessarily in better condition than low-ranking ones
f. Babies of low and high ranking moms receive somewhat different treatment
i. Easier to handle baby from lower female than higher (a lot more elaborate on other side)
g. Rank acquired and maintained by both physical and psychological processes
h. Low ranking females rarely unite to form alliance against higher ranking female, instead they form alliance with someone already higher than their opponent
i. Most alliances are to preserve the status quo, not change it
i. Fewer than 5% of females' disputes result in alliances
j. Bystanders may vocally join in
i. Low cost signal
k. Sisters assume ranks in inverse relation to their ages, with youngest daughter ranking higher than all her sisters
l. Even low ranking females raise offspring successfully
m. STORY ON PAGE 69-70 about trying to challenge hierarchy
n. Females typically ignore each other's courtships
o. STORY PAGE 71-2
p. Socially integrated females enjoy higher infant survival than females with weaker social networks
q. Low ranking females groom higher ranking females bc they are threatened by them
r. Royal family member visited and when learned about rank-based society mentioned that hereditary rank is part of human nature with this evolutionary proof
s. Females of all ranks produce offspring
i. Infanticide also affects all ranks
t. High ranking females also groom low ranking females and handle their infants
u. Grunts used to reconcile after fights
v. Playback sequences we talked about in class on 4/12
i. Not as precise as tests in labs because they don't know everything that has happened to subjects on the day they're tested nor can they control all of the contextual variables presented under natural conditions
ii. Took months to build up library of clear screams from all the females
iii. Took very long time to conduct
iv. Hard to get everything set up quick enough after noticing a fight
v. Had to observe same females fighting at least twice
vi. One female fought everyone but never grunted; "Queen of Mean"
1. When her daughter was killed by a lion she lost her grooming partner and had to start approaching other females and grunt and groom them
2. Hard to do because of previous reputation (most usually fled in panic)
vii. One female never fought, and when she did she almost immediately grunted afterwards
viii. Grunts not only calmed the sub females, but caused them to seek out their former opponent
w. Comparing baboons to humans? Pg 84
x. Low-ranking animals do not necessarily experience the most stress (more related to unpredictability of loss of control, infanticide)
y. Macaque example pg 85
z. Social support is also importation for health and reproduction of nonhuman primates
i. Bereaving females cope by extending their social network
a. Rank, kinship, etc = learned associations or sophisticated knowledge?
b. Monkeys seems to be aware of relative dominance ranks, as well as their own rank relative to others
i. Seen in grooming (i.e. vervets 91-2), choice of alliance partners
c. Fear barks are unambiguous indicators of subordination, a female never gives them to someone lower than she
d. Violation of expectations test (93-4)
i. Created call sequences mimicking an interaction that violated the female dominance hierarchy
1. 8th ranking barking at 3rd ranking who is in fear (would never happen)
ii. Responded more strongly when expectations were violated
iii. Similar test w/males (95)
e. Calls are individually distinctive
f. Baboons recognize each other's kin
i. Mothers respond to their infant's calls, other mothers look at the mother of whichever infant is calling to see if they're responding (sometimes they'll respond before the actual mother does)
ii. Females watching their relatives fight, share glances as if asking what to do
iii. Behavior not only influenced by one's own past interactions, but those of their relatives as well
g. In many monkey species an individual who has just threatened or been threatened by another animal will often redirect aggression by attacking a third, previously uninvolved, individual
i. Not always random third party w/rhesus macaques they choose a close matrilineal relative of their recent opponent...similar in Japanese macaques and vervets
h. Vocal alliances in females by uttering threat-grunts when they see one female threaten another
i. Often a close relative of more dom female (suggesting support, but not jumping in)
i. When trying to figure out who a threat-grunt is directed at, sub females take into account the signaler's identity, her relationship w/her opponent, and the nature of recent interactions
j. Kin-mediated reconciliation occurs at double the rate of direct reconciliation
i. Aggressors not always motivated to initiate friendly contact, or victims avoid aggressor's approaches
ii. Evidence of empathy in chimps = uninvolved bystander "consoling" victim of aggression
1. Lack of this in monkeys supports idea that monkeys are unable to empathize bc they can't attribute mental states like fear or anxiety to others
k. While we are aware that monkeys recognize kinship relations of others, we still know little on how they do so (i.e. is it based on rates of interaction, are mother and sister viewed differently or the same, etc)
l. Most sexual consortships are formed by the group's alpha male
i. Male baboons in East Africa form coalitions to challenge a consort, but those in the Okavango don't (wait until male isn't around, or abandons females
ii. Males constantly monitor status of other males' consortships
iii. Consortships temporary and unpredictable
m. Romeo & Juliet—quarrels between families are potentially much more destructive than quarrels within families
i. Tested this w/baboons pg 106-7
ii. Between family rank reversals more momentous than within family ones (108)
1. Both equally rare tho
n. Absolute rank changes when a female matures or dies, but relative rank among females rarely alters
o. Monkeys classify others simultaneously according to both their individual attributes (like rank) and their membership in higher-order groups (like matrilines)
p. Japanese macaques choose their coalition partners who are higher-ranking and unrelated to their opponent
q. Skills in forming relationships appear to enhance a female's lifetime RS
i. Study found that those w/highest rate of infant survival were not highest ranking female, but more socially integrated
r. # of females' close social bonds seems to plateau at 6, suggesting that females either don't have enough time or they simply don't need that many partners to meet their social needs
s. Teaching sea lion to group arbitrary symbols pg 112
t. Recognize baboons as certain group, but as individuals at same time
u. Female members of the same matriline often form friendships w/different males, and the same male may form simultaneous friendships w/females from different matrilines
v. Baboon can belong to many different classes simultaneously (115)
w. Baboons appear to have implicit expectations about how individuals interact w/one another
a. Suggestion that the near-continuous sexual receptivity of primate females created complex problems in behavioral control and social awareness for males
b. The higher intellectual faculties of primates have evolved as an adaptation to social living
i. All group-living animals confront a multitude of social problems, and that intelligence in primates—and perhaps many other species—must have evolved at least in part because natural selection has favored individuals who are skilled at solving these problems
c. ICC = index of cranial capacity (ratio of a species' actual cc vs. expected cc)
i. Baboons 177cc, 7.3 ICC
ii. Chimps 393cc, 8.2 ICC
iii. Capuchin monkey 11.7 ICC
iv. Gorilla 5.5 ICC
1. Ape brains appear to exhibit a comparatively greater elaboration of the cerebellum and frontal lobes
d. Hypotheses about brain size on pages 124-5: brain size correlated with group size??
e. Face cells in temporal cortex that respond at least twice as vigorously to faces or components of faces
f. Left-brain, right-ear advantage like humans when processing their own species' vocalizations but not when processing other sounds
g. Vervets practice strategic alliances formation, curry favor w/members of high-ranking fams, and keep track of who has been nice to them in the recent past
i. What they don't know: animal tracks (can't tell where python track is, often fall prey), no response to carcass in tree which signifies leopard nearby (even baboons don't catch on to this when there's a baboon carcass!)
h. Social learning, innovation and tool use strongly correlated with brain size but not group size
i. Selective pressures favoring enlarged brains in apes and humans may have been technological rather than social
j. Chimp shown lock and key and then asked to choose what went with a can, chose can opener
k. Rhesus macaques saw a picture and received a cue (either drop of juice or a tone), then shown a second picture
i. If given juice, they were only to respond if 2nd pic was same as 1st. If heard a tone, only respond if 2nd is different from 1st. (Juice=same, Tone=different)
l. Relatively greater size of primate brains is particularly pronounced in the prefrontal cortex (ability to make abstract judgements?)
m. Highly social nonprimates also have large brains and display sophisticated knowledge of other individuals' social relationships
n. Experiments w/birds & eavesdropping pg 136-141
i. Even unsocial animals have sophisticated knowledge of other animals' relations
ii. Clearly adaptive bc it allows listeners to assess a rival's skills at very little cost to themselves
iii. Social complexity is correlated with superior performance in some cognitive tasks
o. Possibility that large brains in apes and humans—if not in monkeys—evolved as a result of selective pressures favoring social learning and technological innovation rather than skill in social interactions
p. Experiment found positive correlations between brain size and innovation, social learning and tool use
q. Social and technological intelligence should not be contrasted as alternatives, but as selective forces that are inextricably linked
a. Theory of mind = ability to attribute mental states like knowledge and ignorance to both oneself and others
i. A vervet with zero-order intentional system would have no beliefs and desires at all (gives alarm call as reflexive response to leopard, first-order would do it because he believes there is a leopard nearby and he wants others to run into the trees)
ii. Could be higher levels with some understanding about both their own and others' states of mind (gives alarm call bc he wants others to believe that there is a leopard nearby)
b. A theory of mind allows us explicit access to our own mental states
c. Child paints wall as uses excuse the room is filled with "bad bees and spiders" and says she never does anything on purpose
i. Puppets putting chocolate under cups, older kids understood thoughts of others
ii. Ability develops gradually
iii. Different stages pg 150-1
iv. Most striking feature is motivation to share knowledge and beliefs with others
d. Primate behavior can almost always be explained in terms of relatively simple learned behavioral contingencies, without recourse to theory of mind..."deceptive" behavior
i. Low-ranking female finds bird eggs stuffs in mouth fast and runs away, high ranking female eats in plain sight (impression is that low rank F is trying to avoid theft)
1. Does she understand that if she conceals her find others will remain ignorant? Or has she simply learned that she will be more likely to keep her eggs if she acts this way?
ii. Mom receiving attn. all morning from higher females who wanted time with her baby, got not time to eat or rest herself so lashed out at a higher ranking female who came when she was finally eating...higher female came back later and bit her on the neck
iii. Females hiding low to ground to prevent infanticide
iv. More examples pg 156
e. Instead of analyzing beliefs and desires, animals use past performances as a guide to future behavior (compares to people with Asperger's)
f. Monkeys and apes, like young children, might be able to represent simple mental states like emotions and intentions even if they cannot recognize more complex ones like knowledge and beliefs
i. "contact" calls in baboons—when separated from others can be heard over 500 meters
1. Females answered their relatives' contact bark primarily when they themselves were lagging behind the group and separated from other females
ii. "food calls"—discovery of food
iii. Don't expect to be informed or deceived—chimps who remain silent when they find a fruiting tree are not punished by those who arrive later
1. Infants are lost, mothers get very frantic but never punishes infant for ignoring her (to do so would infer that she understands the intent to ignore
iv. Baboons' apparent insensitivity to others' plight (once reunited after attacks all emotions surrounding the separation simply disappear)
v. Lord of the Flies situation pg 163
g. Baboons do not produce calls in response to their perception of another's ignorance, predicament or ability
h. During a flood a 2 year old became stranded alone (usually would be killed by predator)
i. He joined a group of impala and foraged with them for two days, then joined vervets who tried but failed to chase away, constant barks were occasionally answered by aunts on distant islands but never came to him, 5 weeks later his group came to an island across from his and they barked on the edge until he swam to the other side
i. Appear not to understand that their own knowledge and abilities might be different from someone else's
j. Juvenile sat near researcher making eye contact then gave alarm bark while looking at researcher, there was a cobra just below his feet
i. Many studies show monkeys and apes attend to individuals' eyes and their direction of gaze
1. Follow gaze of others
2. Experiment of chimps knowing how to beg for food by looking at person without the blindfold (but looked at both of them equally)
ii. Know what others can and can't see, as well as what they can and can't hear (ie rhesus macaques)
k. Sub chimp had to fight dom chimp for food (most often approached food dom couldn't see)
l. Dogs outperform chimps in ability to communicate cues like pointing, gazing and reaching to find food
m. Rhesus macaques when stealing grape from unseeing observer act deliberately to avoid detection
i. Recognize that others are motivated to defend food they are looking at and less likely to defend food in which they show no interest
n. No strong conclusive evidence that monkeys, apes or other animals recognize other individuals' knowledge
o. Inferences about directedness of vocalizations are probs often mediated by gaze direction and relatively simple contingencies
p. Low-ranking individuals who fail to announce their presence to higher ones are more likely to be supplanted from a resource than those who announce themselves
i. Females grunt as they are about to do something she recognizes is above her station and might not be tolerated
q. A rudimentary understanding of intentions and motives represents a crucial first step toward a communication system like language
r. Baboon approaching only one researcher out of group and tugging on wires of camera to get his attention
s. Baboon's ability to read another's intentions depends on memory of his recent behavior
t. In the wild, baboons only use tools in aggressive contexts (occasionally wave or throw sticks at rivals)
i. Chimps throw branches at baboons but not vice versa
ii. Chimps and orangs in captivity learn to use tools to open boxes, require very few trials to learn to copy demonstrator's actions
1. Also use in wild for other purposes
u. Evidence for teaching nonhuman primates can by summarized by one word: scant
v. Both human and nonhuman primates show physiological responses to loss of close companions=grief
i. Grief is egocentric, like fear whereas empathy requires that an individual be able to recognize emotions lie grief or fear in others even when she is not experiencing those emotions herself
w. Chimps attend wounded or paralyzed limbs of offspring
i. Test where chimps could give others food, didn't even think about them (lack of empathy?)
x. Carrying dead infant = respect for ownership? Do they understand death? Pg 195
a. Seeing chimp for first time in a decade
i. Well known habit of getting physical with researchers which was highly unusual (researchers try to be neutral part of landscape)
ii. Grew up around observers and became fearless...began to bully researchers and tourists
iii. Once knocked Craig down and them groomed his hair as he laid curled up on the ground
b. Goodall's work still a benchmark for ape studies, longest and most important study of animal behavior ever
i. She documented the importance of kinship in chimp society and showed that individual personalities mattered enormously
ii. Some males very political, others just use force
c. When Frodo hunts, others hunt w/him
i. Catalyst to events around him, others avoided encounters w/him
d. Each pop of chimps exhibits a suite of unique behaviors
i. Some chimps make tools from twigs and blades of grass to "fish" for termites
1. Other pops have never been seen doing this
2. Instead they gather stones and use as hammers to crack open fruits
3. Don't believe there is a genetic component to this, nor are the differences solely related to environments (it's CULTURE!)
a. Culture applies to any suite of behavioral variations that seem clearly to be learned
e. Hunting = learned behavior
i. Desire is biological, the skills are cultural
ii. Some pops cooperate in hunting, others don't
1. Can't give unifying reason for hunting in chimps
iii. Some want adult colobus monkeys, others go for babies
1. When an infant is taken, the male monkeys group together and attack predator
iv. Says studying hunting behavior is fascinating, exciting and heartbreaking
1. He got to know both the hunters and hunted as individuals
2. One day watched 7 be killed at eaten (1/4 of his group)
v. Female chimps rarely hunt, mainly unsuccessfully
1. Instead rely on males sharing with them
vi. Meat only tiny fraction of diet compared to ripe fruits and other plant foods
1. However has major impact on red colobus pop biology
2. During periods of frequent hunting, they could eradicate 1/10 of the entire colobus pop....could be unsustainable if it continues long term
3. However it's cyclical, based on female repro cycles
a. Many tried to refute this idea
f. Also studied mountain gorillas and their relationships with chimps (co-existing at Bwindi)
i. Researcher studying gorillas see as much sex in a month as a chimp researcher may see in a morning
ii. Slowly discovered as many parallels as differences
g. Shocked when he finally saw Frodo
i. When males lose status, wander alone for a tine before slowly reintegrating
ii. Looked much older and worn, harder life bc of loss of rank?
iii. Had a very high RS during full life no matter what rank, still a good hunter
h. Not only chimps changed, but habitat as well (more tourists, more ecological concerns)
i. Chimps and baboons not scared of humans will go into their camps and eat trash...risking infections
j. Talks about ethnography of apes (shocked he's doing this, more similarities to humans than thought)
k. Calls chimps "next of kin, a window onto our evolution"
a. Darwin's past belief that production of sounds in animals was the involuntary consequence of other bodily movements
b. Over evolutionary time the production of some sounds had come to be associated with specific emotions—had come to serve a communicative function
c. Primate vocalizations are "quite automatic and impossible to suppress"
d. Close relation between vocalizations and thoughts does not exist in primates like it does in humans
e. Compares dogs' stage of development to that of infants
f. Can learn many sound meaning pairs but cannot produce new words
g. 3 flaws to proposition that there is a large gap between mental mechanisms of call production vs comprehension
i. Listeners are also signalers
1. Vervet's alarm calls re: eagles
ii. Calls still have potential to carry rich semantic meaning
iii. Causal factors underlying call production are myriad and complex and there is often a close relationship between particular call type and a specific object/event
h. Alert calls vs alarm calls
i. Suricates and Diana monkeys give alert calls for many different stimuli, but different depending on type of predator (pg 22)
ii. Also depends of level of urgency
iii. Baboons have different calls for mammals vs crocs
i. Vocalizations different with social interactions—more complex array of factors: both immediate social context and history of interactions between individuals involved
i. Move grunt = typically given in context of group movement (foraging, etc)
ii. Infant grunt = females during friendly interactions and provides info about the signaler's disposition (usually context of infant handling)
j. Monkeys and apes rarely modify their vocal repertoires by adding new sounds
i. Two infant Japanese macaques and two infant rhesus macaques were cross-fostered into a group of other species
1. Each became fully integrated in new group, even acquired ranks of foster moms
2. Never learned calls of other group, however
3. Genetically predisposed to give particular calls in own species' contexts?
ii. Captive vervets, adult females gave more calls to predator when with own offspring than with unrelated juvenile
1. Call production depends on audience
2. Similar with baboons move and infant grunts
k. Unknown whether calls are voluntary (if they can decide whether or not to give call)
i. Probably somewhat under control
ii. Experiment where two Japanese macaques were trained to use rake to retrieve food
iii. After training, monkeys spontaneously gave coos when using the rake
1. One coo type to request food, one to request rake
2. At least some control/choice
l. No distinction between "referential" and "affective" signaling, thus wrong to treat animal signals as either or (same with "graded" vs "discrete")
m. Listeners' responses are also affected by context, bc females are more likely to give answering grunts and scan the area around them when the group is moving than when it is resting
n. Same word never means exactly same thing to two successive users
i. Words are more than just labels for concepts; they acquire additional meaning through their relation to other words and their functional roles as nouns, verbs and modifiers
a. Must have experience with objects, events and relations that make up one's world before they can learn language
b. Language of thought—thought before language?
i. Looking at baboons to figure out evolution of language
ii. Not arguing that baboons have language, rather that baboon communication is a lot like language
1. IMPORTANT list pg 251-2
c. Baboons have about 14 different vocalizations (human with avg. vocab use about 50,000 words)
i. Human children learn language they hear, baboons seem unaffected by variations in auditory experience or rearing
d. Most primate calls are holistic—cannot be broken down into their component parts (like we can change walked to walk)
i. Their calls are their smallest AND largest meaningful units (never really string calls together)
1. One exception is Campbell's monkey
a. If call is not as serious as actual predator give a "boom!" vocalization and shortly after they give one of their other calls
2. Chimps sometimes combine barks with drumming (may be different, but not tested yet)
ii. No rule-governed call combos, no means of making different calls to designate their fxn
e. When it comes to perception and comprehension monkeys have a large repertoire and display an almost open ended ability to learn new sound meaning pairs throughout their lives
i. Also require experience before they can use calls in the appropriate context or respond appropriately to the calls of others
1. Vervet monkeys take several years to learn which calls go with which predator and during this time they show the same sort of overgeneralization shown by human infants as they learn the meaning of words
a. A first give calls to many species (pigeons, geese, warthogs)
i. Not random, give leopard calls to large terrestrial mammals and snake alarms to long snakelike objects
ii. Many animals besides primates have almost open ended ability to forsm associations between a sound/sign and an object
f. REREAD PG 261-2
g. Listeners are also signalers—hears alarm call and gives another one, or hears alarm call and stays silent (knowing there's a lion)
h. Monkeys' vocalizations seem designed to influence other's behavior rather than (as in children) to affect their attention or knowledge
i. Do not act deliberately to inform ignorant individuals nor do they attempt to correct or rectify false beliefs in others in the correct usage or response to calls
i. Absence of syntax (ability to think in sentences does not lead to speaking in sentences) pg 268-9
i. Because they can't distinguish between what they know and what others know, they fail to recognize that ignorant individuals must have events explained to them
ii. Monkeys' calls reflect the knowledge they have rather than the knowledge they intend their audience to acquire
iii. Proto-language = language without syntax
j. Language depends on what knowledge we have of the world
k. Primates need sound meaning relations based on a rich conceptual structure (of social relations) in order to survive
l. Before hominids produced syntactic utterances, they assigned meaning to other individuals' calls and extracted syntactic, rule-governed, propositional info from the vocal interactions of others. Language-like perception and cognition thus preceded and set the state for language-like production
i. Long before our ancestors spoke they had a language of thought in which they represented the world—and the meaning of call sequences—in terms of actors, actions and those who are acted upon
ii. Linguistic revolution occurred when we began to express this tacit knowledge in speaking and listening
a. Reproductive success depends on social skills (males)
i. Must live long, maintain high dominance, establish close (temporary) bonds w/females, and protect the infants he has fathered
ii. Highest stress stems from predation and challenges to their status
b. Females must also live a long life, raise healthy infants, protect them from infanticide, and maintain and extensive network of related and unrelated companions
i. Longevity and infant survival = best predictors of RS
ii. Best predictor of infant survival = extent of a female's social integration
iii. Greatest tress from predation (esp when results in loss of close companion), challenges to their infants from infanticidal males, and challenges to their family's status
iv. Can alleviate stress by broadening and extending social network
c. Mind that is specialized for observing social life, computing social relations, and predicting other animals' behavior
i. Brains contain areas that are particularly sensitive to other's orientations, movements, gaze direction and intentions
ii. Communication is equally specialized
d. Always monitoring each other and keeping track of who is consorting with whom, who has fallen in rank who is moving up and which families are feuding w/each other
e. Two reasons to think social life has had most profound influence in making baboons' minds different from other animals:
i. Social pressures are pervasive
ii. Social pressures are more dynamic than those faced outside of social domain
f. Baboons lack insight to imagine different world
i. Don't think about how they could change the world, make food more accessible, etc like humans do
g. Have only limited ability to recognize mental states of others
i. Extract rich causal narratives from other animals' calls, but these narratives remain private
ii. Unlike humans and even very young children, they feel no urge to gossip or share info
iii. They understand much more than they can say...language of thought is impressive, but articulation of thoughts is lacking
1. Possible to have complex society based on cognitive processes that are both computational and representational without either language or a theory of mind
2. Study of baboon metaphysics may help us understand evolution of thought, communication, and language in humans and other species
h. Monkeys' access to their own thoughts is similarly limited
i. Incapable of "what if"
i. Not sure how baboons differ from nonprimate species (comparison pg 276-7)
i. Differences between baboons and other species may lie not so much in their innate tendency to acquire social knowledge as in the particular details of the knowledge they acquire
j. ~30 million years ago baboons, chimps and humans shared same ancestor
i. For ~20million years after chimps and humans shared common ancestor until separating 5-7 mya
k. Biggest differences between baboons and chimps is brain size/structure, social org, and tool use
i. Chimp brains bigger with greater elaboration of the cerebellum and frontal lobe
ii. More comparisons pg 278-9
l. Indisputable that human mind differs qualitatively from that of other apes
i. Uniquely human traits all influenced evolution of one another
ii. Pg 279-283!!!
iii. Syntax, intentionality, theory of mind, motivation to share intentions/emotions/knowledge, use and manufacture of tools/tech
iv. Speculation that innovation and tech, not the demands of social life, have driven the evolution of large brains in primates