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Bio Psych Final_ Consciousness, Free Will, & The Law
Terms in this set (25)
conscious mind primarily depends on 3 structures:
; intralaminar nuclei-can turn off consciousness forever; sensory input (body and surrounding world) pass through thalamus; arousal, processing info; sleep; coordinating activity
; wakefulness, contributes to selective attention
CORE consciousness depends on functions of
. Occurs when an organism is alive, awake, alert, and solely aware of the current moment and place. It is the foundation for increasingly complex levels of consciousness
EXTENDED consciousness depends on
to provide an organism with elaborate sense to self, to gradually build up from memories and expected future experiences, and to place the self in individual historic time.
having thoughts, perceptions, feelings, and awareness
: subjective experience, phenomenal awareness, raw feelings, and the first person viewpoint
Practicing a task results in a shift in which regions of the brain are most active
Left PFC: insula
Premotor and parietal areas: primary and supplementary motor areas
MOST of the processing going on in brain is considered to be
brain activity evoked by a stimulus that is below the threshold for awareness. When processing is subliminal, the information is inaccessible to awareness.
brain state in which stimulus-driven activity is strong enough to generate significant sensory processing, but in the absence of top down attention to amplify the signal, it does not reach the threshold for awareness.
Conscious Processing (awareness)
occurs when stimulus salience is sufficiently strong and the signals are amplified by goal driven attention such that they exceed the threshold for awareness
Marcus Rachel & Steven Petersen
ability to move conscious, controlled processing to unconscious, automatic processing involves a "scaffolding to storage" framework
Unlearned, conscious processing uses a much different network of brain regions than does later, learned, unconscious processing
Ability to relegate learned tasks and memories to unconsciousness allows us to...
devote our limited consciousness resources to recognizing and adaptive to changes and novel situations in the environment, thus increasing our chances of survival
observed increasing brain activity related to an action as many as 300 ms before the conscious intention to act
Emergence of brain interpreter in human species
system is in the
and works outside conscious awareness
distills internal and external information bombarding the brain into a cohesive narrative, which becomes our personal story
Interpreter looks for cause & effect of internal and external events and enables the formation of beliefs
ALTHOUGH CHILDREN demonstrate shared intentions with others, ability NOT found in chimps and other nonhuman primates. It has been suggested that shared intention is the foundation of
mental constructs that allow us to engage in goal-directed behavior and free us from reflexive, stimulus-driven behavior
Josep Call & Michael Tomasello
chimpanzees have only a limited theory of mind. can understand others perceptions and goals but do not understand their desires or beliefs.
Physical Matter of the Universe
Operates under a set of fixed, knowable laws
demonstrated that a deterministic process could be unpredictable
effects added fuel to idea that old-fashioned determinism was scientifically unsound
Demonstrates that in a complex system, knowing the workings at one level of organization will not allow you to predict the actual functioning at another level
People who believe in free will behave...
BETTER. Those who do NOT are more
and less helpful toward others
Individual behavior is affected by
The social group
Law is based on...
several false assumptions about the brain and behavior
Justice can be
retributive, utilitarian, or restorative
When making hypothetical punishments for an offense...
Vast majority of people will select a retributive punishment, even though they say they endorse a more utilitarian perspective
Humans are born with an innate sense of...
fairness, willingness to punish moral transgressors, and wired for reciprocity within their social group
Regions of brain active when making individual punishment judgments vs. third-party judgments:
Individual: activate emotional regions of brain
Third-party: activate dlPFC, region active when making judgments in ultimatum game
Emotional Reactivity Hypothesis
humans domesticated themselves by ostracizing overly aggressive or despotic individuals
In the absence of punishment...
Cooperation cannot sustain itself in presence of free-riders and it collapses
When multiple rounds of ultimatum game are played...
Punishing unfair offers results in change in behavior (fair offers increase, resulting in more cooperation)
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