Miller Levine Biology (Classification & Evolution)

Chapters 15 & 18 on Evolution and Classification vocabulary.
the process of classifying organisms and assigning each organism each organism a universally accepted name
binomial nomenclature
the two-part scientific name of organisms
a group of closely related species
each level of Linnaeus's hierarchal system of classification
a group of genera with similar characteristics
a broad taxonomic group of families
a taxon of orders
a taxonomic group of several different classes
the largest and most inclusive taxonomic category
study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
evolutionary classification
the strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history
derived characters
characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members
a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
molecular clock
a model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
a more inclusive category than any other - larger than a kingdom
domain with unicellular prokaryotic organisms whose cell walls contain peptidoglycan
the kingdom that the domain Bacteria corresponds with
domain with unicellular prokaryotic organisms whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan
the kingdom that the domain Archaea corresponds with
domain that consists of all animals with a nucleus
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of organisms that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of heterotrophic organisms that feed on dead or decaying matter
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of multicellular organisms that are photosynthetic autotrophs
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of mainly multicellular heterotrophic organisms without cell walls
change over time, or the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
a well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world
preserved remains of ancient organisms
artificial selection
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
struggle for existence
members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life
the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment
any inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
survival of the fittest
process by which individuals that are better suited for their environment survive and reproduce more successfully; also called natural selection
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited for their environment survive and reproduce more successfully; also called survival of the fittest
descent with modification
the principle which states that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time
common descent
the principle which states that all species, living and extinct, were derived from common ancestors
homologous structures
structures that have different forms but develop from the same embryonic tissue
vestigial organs
organs that serve no useful function in an organism
Charles Darwin
1809-1882 English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859.
species vary globally
Darwin noticed that different, yet ecologically similar, animal species inhabited separated, but ecologically similar, habitats around the globe.
species vary locally
Darwin noticed that different, yet related, animal species often occupied different habitats within a local area.
species vary over time
Darwin noticed that some fossils of extinct animals were similar to living species.
Galapagos Islands
Chain of islands near South America where Darwin developed his theory of natural selection by studying the unique life there.
Darwin's ship
Alfred Russel Wallace
British naturalist who developed a hypothesis of natural selection similar to Darwin's
The Origin of the Species
Darwin's book explaining how various species evolve over time and only those with advantages can survive and reproduce.
variation and adaptation
Darwin hypothesized that individuals have natural variations among heritable traits, some are more suitable than others (adaptations)
Geographic distribution of species.
analogous structures
Structures of different species having similar or corresponding function but not from the same evolutionary origin. Different structure, same function.
common genetic code
All living organisms share the same 4 bases of DNA (or RNA). This supports that all living organisms come from the same original source.
The studying the early development of living things shows that related organisms develop in similar ways.
A change in DNA that can aid the organism in survival or limit the organism's survival.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through
Click to see the original works with their full license.