Miller Levine Biology (Classification & Evolution)

Chapters 15 & 18 on Evolution and Classification vocabulary.
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taxonomy
the process of classifying organisms and assigning each organism each organism a universally accepted name
binomial nomenclature
the two-part scientific name of organisms
genus
a group of closely related species
taxon
each level of Linnaeus's hierarchal system of classification
family
a group of genera with similar characteristics
order
a broad taxonomic group of families
class
a taxon of orders
phylum
a taxonomic group of several different classes
kingdom
the largest and most inclusive taxonomic category
phylogeny
study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
evolutionary classification
the strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history
derived characters
characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members
cladogram
a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
molecular clock
a model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
domain
a more inclusive category than any other - larger than a kingdom
Bacteria
domain with unicellular prokaryotic organisms whose cell walls contain peptidoglycan
Eubacteria
the kingdom that the domain Bacteria corresponds with
Archaea
domain with unicellular prokaryotic organisms whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan
Archaebacteria
the kingdom that the domain Archaea corresponds with
Eukarya
domain that consists of all animals with a nucleus
Protista
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of organisms that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi
Fungi
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of heterotrophic organisms that feed on dead or decaying matter
Plantae
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of multicellular organisms that are photosynthetic autotrophs
Animalia
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of mainly multicellular heterotrophic organisms without cell walls
evolution
change over time, or the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
theory
a well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world
fossils
preserved remains of ancient organisms
artificial selection
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
struggle for existence
members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life
fitness
the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment
adaptation
any inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
survival of the fittest
process by which individuals that are better suited for their environment survive and reproduce more successfully; also called natural selection
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited for their environment survive and reproduce more successfully; also called survival of the fittest
descent with modification
the principle which states that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time
common descent
the principle which states that all species, living and extinct, were derived from common ancestors
homologous structures
structures that have different forms but develop from the same embryonic tissue
vestigial organs
organs that serve no useful function in an organism
Charles Darwin
1809-1882 English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859.
species vary globally
Darwin noticed that different, yet ecologically similar, animal species inhabited separated, but ecologically similar, habitats around the globe.
species vary locally
Darwin noticed that different, yet related, animal species often occupied different habitats within a local area.
species vary over time
Darwin noticed that some fossils of extinct animals were similar to living species.
Galapagos Islands
Chain of islands near South America where Darwin developed his theory of natural selection by studying the unique life there.
Beagle
Darwin's ship
Alfred Russel Wallace
British naturalist who developed a hypothesis of natural selection similar to Darwin's
The Origin of the Species
Darwin's book explaining how various species evolve over time and only those with advantages can survive and reproduce.
variation and adaptation
Darwin hypothesized that individuals have natural variations among heritable traits, some are more suitable than others (adaptations)
biogeography
Geographic distribution of species.
analogous structures
Structures of different species having similar or corresponding function but not from the same evolutionary origin. Different structure, same function.
common genetic code
All living organisms share the same 4 bases of DNA (or RNA). This supports that all living organisms come from the same original source.
embryology
The studying the early development of living things shows that related organisms develop in similar ways.
mutation
A change in DNA that can aid the organism in survival or limit the organism's survival.
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