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Bio Psych Final_ Article Summaries
Terms in this set (7)
EMOTION: Fear extinction without fear: direct reinforcement of neural activity bypasses the need for conscious exposure.
AMYGDALA activity reduced for target conditioned stimulus relative to the control conditioned stimulus
vmPFC activity reduced for target conditioned stimulus relative to the control conditioned stimulus
Rewards can be paired with patterns of neural activity in the visual cortex to facilitate the reduction of fear
EMOTION: Prefrontal-striatal pathway underlies cognitive regulation of craving.
PFC acts on striatum to modulate levels of craving
Decrease in craving=increase in dPFC (ventral striatum)
Regulation of craving= increased activity in emotional regulation (DM/ vlPFC)
Emotion & Memory: Extinction during reconsolidating of threat memory diminishes PFC involvement.
conducting extinction timed with reconsolidating bypasses the PFC and doesn't engage the vmPFC
Implications for anxiety disorders
Emotion & Memory: Beta-adrenergic blockade during memory retrieval in humans evokes a sustained reduction of declarative emotional memory enhancement.
norepinephrine plays a critical role in emotional memory retrieval
propranolol stops memory enhancement for emotional items
disruption of hippocampal-amygdala couples
Social Cognition: Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions.
emotional v. cognitive empathy
IFG: emotional empathy
vmPFC: cognitive empathy
Mirror neuron system: activated with emotional empathy
Social Cognition: Social rejection shares somatosensory representations with physical pain.
Both physical pain and social rejection use both affective and somatic network
Affective: dorsal ACC and anterior insula
Physical: opercula-insular region and dorsal posterior insula
Overlap in the OP1 and dpINS when experiencing intense social rejection and warm trials
Consciousness, Free will & Law: Willful modulation of brain activity in disorders of consciousness.
fMRI detected awareness that clinicians cannot detect during besides assent.
Double dissociation: between motor area and parahippocampal gyrus
Parahippocampal gyrus (spatial imagery): memory and recall of visual scenes/cues; thinking about navigating city or room
supplemental motor area (activity) activated during thinking about tennis.
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