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Terms in this set (60)
Who were the 5 nations effected by the trail of tears?
Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole. Called the 5 civilized tribes.
-Great Basin Plateau Region
-Men and women dance together.
-Involves the entire community
-Performed in spring when the bear emerges from hibernation.
-The dance also celebrates the end of winter and the coming of warmer weather signaled by thunderstorms.
-Purpose - renewal of life, return of spring, to remember and show respect for the grizzly bear woman.
Can be combined with the girl's puberty ceremonial (giving thanks for fertility).
-The woman who represents the bear-woman selects partners with a willow wand or by throwing pebbles.
Next they interlock arms to form a line facing the singers.
At this point the song ends.
-Plains. -Male and female singer. -Performed the 1st day of summer. -A Sun Dance is traditionally performed when someone sponsors themself as a personal spiritual sacrifice to the Almighty in a significant time of need. In essence the Sun Dance is considered to be a universal religion due to the fact that it emphases the individual's relationship to the Almighty and that it is open to anyone regardless of ethnic background, sex, age, or physical and social conditions. -4 Day Fast: Endurance Dance.
Sponsored by someone in crisis who needs power.
Extreme Physical Torture - Strong Belief.
-Male drums and dances.
-Men wrote song while hunting, woman serves as memory by repeating the song.
-Like drum dance but with a specific purpose.
-Resolve disputes through song, audience decides winner. --Ties are broken with punches.
-Almost always women.
-Two women face each other.
-Imitate each other and try to keep composure.
-Tanya Tagaq is contemporary throat singer.
-Subarctic Region (Dogrib)
-AKA Round Dance,Friendship Dance,Caribou Dance.
-Male singers only.
-ONLY vocables, no text. "Yay yah yay."
-Energetic steps - clockwise circle, with women joining dance circle after men.
5-6 hours long - repetitive
What are the two social dances of the plains?
Round Dance and the Intertribal/Grand Entry
-Social dance, everyone joins.
-Some wear regalia, some don't.
-Dance in a circle.
all the powwow performers enter like at the olympic opening ceremonies. All performing groups do their dances.
-Porcupine roach -"ruffle" dance
-2 large feather bustles -fast drum beat in a row
-vibrant colors -all men singing vocables
-athletic and fast -singing lower
-sleigh bells worn -South has an H shape.
-The dance steps are low to the ground during the slow tempo portion of the song and during the middle of the song flamboyant moves are performed. During the honor beats, Russian kicks, knee walks, pirouettes, spins, and push ups are performed. When the tempo is faster, the head and foot coordination is crucial, as well as ending exactly as the song finishes with a fancy pose.
Southern Straight Dance
-Known as the gentleman's dance, regal.
-Regalia: porcupine roach, drag: otter fur
-Dance steps: men's basic
-story of tracking and hunting, telling a story
-flowing ribbons of yarn
-porcupine roach (down back)
-imitate blowing and flowing grass.
Northern Traditional Dance
-the dance tells a story, dancers may imitate an eagle, porcupine etc., or relate the story of a war party . The regalia includes one large bustle on the back and a roach feather worn on the head
Sneak up Dance
-down on 1 knee ruffling feathers looking and then spring up "attack "and do basic 2 step.
What are the men's dances of the plains?
Round Dance, Fancy Dance, Southern Straight Dance, Grass Dance, Northern Traditional Dance, Sneak up Dance
What are the women's dances of the plains?
Buckskin dance, southern cloth dance, jingle dance, Fancy shawl dance.
-Regalia: braided hair under a beaded crown, buckskin dress with long fringe, a choker, beaded mocasins, a fringed shawl over an arm, and a feather fan.
-Basic step dance.
-The dance steps are a walking step to the beat of the drum and raise their fans in the air during the honor beat. The dance is about gracefulness and dignity. like the Southern Cloth dance, the dancers put their own flair into the traditional movements to show their personal style.
Southern Cloth Dance
-Similar to buckskin dance only wearing a cloth dress.
-dancers maintain an attitude of dignity and must stay in time with the drum beat.
-The regalia includes a beaded headress, a feather fan and a long fringed shwal draped over an arm.
-TThe dance steps are the dancers interpretation of graceful walking steps. In the middle go the dance the dancer bows three times to three beats. The dancers perform these steps but put their own flair into it.
-from Canada -"jingle dress" song
-healing -steady drum beat
-365 cones -men singing high
-they carry a fan -Northern
-The dance steps are perfectly synchronized with the drum beats in order to keep the jingling or the dress in harmony with the drum beat. They dance forward at all times, lifting their fans during the honor beats. They shuffle their feet forward and backward and also SIDE STEP. Being harmonious and smooth is important in the Jingle Dance.
Story of the jingle dress/dance
Originated in the Northeast region, first made out of bone and then dip lids, they dance to northern style music. A great grandfather had a favorite great granddaughter who became very ill, he offered prayers to the Great Spirit to heal her. The spirit told him to make a dress that was both pleasing to the ears as well as to the eyes and he was given instructions, made the dress and his granddaughter was healed. Regalia: scarves, leather belts, and dream catchers. They hold their waist while dancing and raise hand to catch Spirit of the drum
-Female Fancy Dance. High energy dance, Balls of your feet
-"Butterfly dance" because very graceful.
-The dance steps are kept at the same tempo as the drum beats. The shawl, head and feet should all be kept in harmony with the drums. Agility, endurance, and grace are crucial in this dance.
The Trail of Tears was the forced removal of Native American nations from the southeastern United States to what was known as Indian Territory. (t/f)
Forced removal peaked during the Jefferson administration.
Traumatic removal varied from walking on harsh overland trails escorted by the US military, to riding on horseback and dragging possessions, or sailing up the Gulf Coast of Mexico or up the Mississippi.
The horrifying nature of the forced removals affected all associated, culminating in the loss of life through disease, extreme weather conditions, or warfare.
In most Native American cultures a relatively short unit, rather like our nursery rhymes or hymns is called a ___________ Responsethat are performed in many different ceremonial sacred and secular events.
It is largely in ______ and ______ that their Native American background is exhibited to themselves and to others.
Music and dance
Native American music mostly accompanies __________ Response with percussion instruments such as drums or rattles.
Culture areas and music areas often coincide with each other, but distinct music areas are separated into _____ different music areas. Do note that this is referring to traditional Native American music.
In Blackfoot culture music has _______ Correct Responsepower.
Almost all instruments are percussive, and their function is to provide ______ to singing. Solo _______ is actually rare.
rhythmic accompaniment, drumming
Most important, however the instruments of Native Americans are largely non-melodic percussion instruments, and melody-producing instruments have special and restricted ____________-.
If the relative dearth of melody-producing instruments is noteworthy in Native American cultures of North America, it is important to keep in mind that, in many of them, songs may not be primarily a vehicle for_______ While some Native American song texts, like those of the Navajo and Pueblo people, are often highly elaborate poems, in Plains people culture songs may have no words at all but only vocables.
Clearly, as entire tribes were wiped out and virtually all Native American people were relocated, suffering cultural disintegration through devastating famines and epidemics, knowledge of ________________ and rituals as well as social repertory decreased and much was simply forgotten. As Native Americans were motivated to take up Western lifestyles and religions, they also began to participate in Western music, and sometimes to adopt Western conceptions of ___________ for their own musical cultures.
In some Plains cultures, ___________, men who dressed as women and did women's work, and might be homosexual, were sometimes extolled as great singers.
Name 5 popular music artists/bands mentioned in the article Native American music.
Jim pepper, XIT, Buffy Saint-Marie, Peter LaFarge, R. Carlos Nakai
Much of the Native American popular music does not differ in its musical style and sound from _______ rock, blues, and pop, but its words deal with social, economic, and political issues faced by American Indians.
Native American regions map
What are the different sections/order found in a powwow song?
2. Second/Introductory lead
3. Primary verse
4. Secondary verse
The Bear Dance would traditionally be performed the first day of
The Sun Dance would traditionally be performed the first day of
What instruments do the Bear Dance musicians play?
What Nation performs the Bear Dance?
Listening to the Sun Dance example, you can hear both a female and a male singer.
What region is primarily known for participating in Sun Dance ceremonies?
The Bear Dance is a lady's choice dance.
Bear Dance songs are described as having a ___________ instrumental sound
A Sun Dance is traditionally performed when someone sponsors themself as a personal spiritual sacrifice to the Almighty in a significant time of need.
Bear Dance songs focus on songs that use mostly text. (t/f)
In essence the Sun Dance is considered to be a universal religion due to the fact that it emphases the individual's relationship to the Almighty and that it is open to anyone regardless of ethnic background, sex, age, or physical and social conditions. (t/f)
According to Ute legend, the Ute people have ancestral connections to the Bear. (t/f)
a one-sided hand drum played with a mallet.
A plucked idiophone placed in the performers mouth
According to the Canadian Encyclopedia there are six different regions or cultural areas that are partly or fully found within Canadian boarders. What are the 6 regions?
Plains, Plateau, Arctic, Northeast Woodlands, Eastern Woodlands, Subarctic
-Large Drum or Powwow Drum
-Bells (included as part of powwow regalia)
-Jingles (included as part of powwow regalia)
Great basin instruments:
-Medicine Flute (smaller flute)
-Plains style Flute
Birch Bark Drums
Plains Style Flutes
-Unlike the Arctic, Subarctic hand drums are played by striking the membrane of the drum.
-Hand Drum with Snares (snares are called whisper voices)
-Fiddles (after Western contact)
-Note - instruments reflected nomadic lifestyle, meaning the instruments were made to be easily transportable.
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