97 terms

Biology 1202 Final Study Guide


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Early atmospheric gases
CO2, N2, H2O and H2
Current domains of Life
archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote
Name of earliest hominids
Homo sapiens
Place of hominid evolution
In Africa
Important adaptations of primate evolution
Genus and species name of humans
Homo sapiens
the branch of biology concerned with reconstructing
evolutionary history
Genus, species names
-Scientific names are always underlined or italicized
-The first letter of the genus name is always capitalized
-The first letter of the species name is always lower case
-divided living things into animals and plants
-laid the groundwork for the modern classification system
-placed organisms into hierarchical categories based on their resemblance to other organisms
-introduced the scientific name composed of genus and species
Major classes of classification
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order , family , genus, species
Classify organisms as prokaryotic or eukaryotic
prokaryotic- unicellular
eukaryotic- multicellular
Binary fission
asexual cel division produces identical copies
occurs when one bacterium passes DNA to a second bacterium through a tube (sex puils) that temporarily joins two cells; the plasmid (DNA) is the exchanged
Simple in structure; spin like propellers
Aerobic vs. anaerobic bacteria
-aerobic needs oxygen
-anaerobic doesn't need oxygen
-can survive environmental assaults that would normally kill the bacterium
Virus characteristics
-No cell membrane , no cytoplasm, no ribosomes-not a living thing
-Can only reproduce inside a host cell
-Very small size (0.05-0.2 micrometers)
-Come in a variety of shapes
Viral shapes
helical, icosahedral
Stages of viral infection
-Attachment of virus to host cell
-Penetration- Injection of DNA or RNA into host cell (can enter lysogenic or lytic cycle)
-Viral synthesis- viral components are made (capsid, DNA/RNA)
-Viral assembly
-Lysis of infected cell and release of progeny phage
Lytic virus
-reproduction occurs immediately; virus burst out of cell(lysis) and kills the host cell
-Lytic phage are called virulent
Lysogenic virus
-reproduction does not occur immediately; virus incorporates into the cell's genome
-Lysogenic phage are called temperate
Bacterial shapes
-cocci (spherical)
-bacilli (rod-shaped)
-spirilla (curved shape)
-(like a Cell wall)-Bacteria have peptidoglycan, Archaea have no peptidoglycan
Gram positive bacteria
-Bacteria with walls containing relatively large amounts of peptidoglycan are Gram-positive
Gram negative bacteria
-Bacterial species with walls containing small amounts of peptidoglycan are Gram-negative
Animal characteristics
Radial and bilateral symmetry
Insect body regions
Chordate characteristics
Bird characteristics/evolutionary relationship
Mammalian characteristics
Negative and positive feedback
Level of organization
Organ system
Tissue types
-muscle, epithelial, connective and nervous
Muscle type
-smooth & cardiac
Involuntary/voluntary muscles
-heart is involuntary, skeletal is voluntary and the diaphragm is both
-any of the tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body, carrying in most cases oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart
-any of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body
-any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules
Path of blood vessels through body and back to heart
-From heart ->Arteries ->arterioles ->capillaries ->venules ->
veins ->back to heart
Respiratory system
-are the organs in animals that exchange gases with the environment
Gas levels in blood regulated by respiratory system
-As a result of gas exchange in the lungs, systemic arteries carry oxygenated blood with relatively low CO2 concentration
-After the oxygen is unloaded to the tissues, systemic veins carry deoxygenated blood with a high CO2 concentration
Respiratory center
-Each breath begins by neurons in a respiratory control center in the medulla oblongata
Things that can modify breathing rate
-Blood CO2 levels, Blood O2 levels, Activity levels
-opening called the "voice box"
-entry way for digestion
-trachea splits into two branches; each leading to a lung
-branches of bronchi - lined with smooth muscles that can constrict or dilate constrict or dilate passageway
-oily secretion lining alveolar walls , reduces surface tension of alveolar walls, preventing collapse during exhalation
-when air is drawn into lungs
-when air is expelled out of lungs
-binds to oxygen that diffuses into the blood stream
Essential nutrients
-are substances that an animal cannot make for itself m, but are necessary for health and must be obtained in the diet
-the process of breaking down food by mechanical and enzymatic action in the alimentary canal into substances that can be used by the body
type of digestion in mouth
-Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth as the food is chewed. Chemical digestion involves breaking down the food into simpler nutrients that can be used by the cells. Chemical digestion begins in the mouth when food mixes with saliva. Saliva contains an enzyme (amylase) that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates
-a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid that aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
Parts of the urinary system
1. To remove excess salts and nitrogenous
2. Maintain normal concentrations of water and
3. Maintain pH, control red blood cell production
and blood pressure
-a colorless crystalline compound that is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein metabolism in mammals and is excreted in urine
Path of urine
glomerulus->proximal tubule->loop of henle->distal tubule->collecting duct-> bladder
-1 million microscopic tubule
Parts of nephron
-Bowman's capsule: cuplike
structure that contains a capillary glomerulus; blood is filtered
-Renal Tubule: long twisted
tube; composed of the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule
-Collecting ducts: collect fluid
from many nephrons and deposits it in the renal pelvis
Two main functions of excretory system
-performs the function of excretion, the bodily process of discharging wastes and is responsible for the elimination of wastes produced by homeostasis
Endocrine system
-includes all the organs and tissue that produce hormones
What are hormones made of?
-is a chemical that is secreted into extracellular fluid and carried by the blood, can therefore act at a distance from source, only targets with receptor can respond
-coordinating center between nervous and endocrine system
posterior pituitary
-back portion of the pituitary, a small gland in the head called the master gland. secretes the hormone oxytocin which increases uterine contractions and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which increases reabsorption of water by the tubules of the kidney.
-is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use
-a disease in which the body's ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired, resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood and urine
-a hormone released by the pituitary gland that causes increased contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulates the ejection of milk into the ducts of the breasts
-a hormone secreted by the thyroid that has the effect of lowering blood calcium
parathyroid hormone
-controls calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood
-produced by the hypothalamus
Parts of neuron
-dendrites, the cell body, the axon, synaptic terminals
Function of neurons
-process and transmit information
-the gap between nerve cells
Parts of the central nervous system
-the brain and spinal cord
-helps coordinate movement and balance
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
-stress response(fight or flight) , pupils dilate, heart rate increases. relaxation response, takes over during rest and relaxation , pupils constrict, heart rate slows
-humans have separated sexes, reproduce sexually , and make sex cells
Corpus luteum
-ruptured follicles
-the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote
Human chorionic gonadotropin
-is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation
-is a procedure that makes a man permanently unable to get a woman pregnant
Tubal ligation
-having your tubes tied
Contraceptive methods
Birth control pills: high doses of estrogen/progesterone inhibit LH and FSH release; ovulation won't occur
Depo-Provera (shot)
-is the process by which an organism proceeds from fertilized egg through adulthood
-is the specialization of embryonic cells into different cell types
Three germ layers
-endoderm- inner cell layer , mesoderm- middle cell layer , ectoderm- outer cell layer