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Politics of the United States
Gov't Key Supreme Court Cases
Terms in this set (60)
Marbury vs. Madison
McCulloch v. Maryland
National supremecy, implied powers
Gibbons v. Ogden
Only congress can regulate Interstate commerce
Barron v. Baltimore
Compensation by state, SUPC ruled Bill o Rights did not apply to states; supremacy, 5th amendment (eminent domain)
Dred Scott v. Sandford
slave went to free area, then sued saying he was free; slaves not citizens so no suing and Missouri Compromise unconstitutional; Based on Article 3 and 4 Scott could never be a citizen.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Separate but equal is constitutional.
Schenck v. US
pushed socialism flyers. clear and present danger.
Gitlow v. New York
first case of applying the Bill of Rights to the states.
Near v. Minnesota
article blocked by gag law; ruled govt cannot censor the press.
Palko v. Connecticut
1st degree murder found guilty for 2nd. retried found guilty for 1st. double jeopardy was not a Fundamental right.
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette
kid expelled for not saluting the flag. This was a violation of the 1st amendment and was a "compulsory unification of opinion."
Korematsu v. U.S.
FDR ordered people out of areas critical to national defense, one guy stayed. SUPC said in "times of Peril" government can suspend individual rights.
Everson v. Board of Education
Government can send money to kids going to private school just not the school itself.
Brown v. Board of Education
separate but equal is inherently unequal.
Roth v. U.S.
obscenity not protected under 1st amendment
Mapp v. Ohio
established exclusionary rule (illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court)
Engel v. Vitale
prohibited state sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools because of the establishment clause
Baker v. Carr
one man, one vote (reapportionment)
Abington School District v. Schempp
prohibited devotional Bible reading in public school by virtue of establishment clause.
Gideon v. Wainwright
states must provide lawyers to those unable to afford them in criminal proceedings
Wesberry v. Sanders
one man, one vote in House districts
NY Times v. Sullivan
arrested MLK. a petitioner is required to prove harm in order to win a libel suit.
Griswold v. Connecticut
right to privacy. shadows called penumbras, groundwork for Roe v. Wade.
Miranda v. Arizona
established Miranda warnings of counsel and silence before questioning.
US v. O'Brien
federal crime to burn/destroy draft card.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
supplements for teaching non secular in Catholic schools. Ruled salary supplements violated the establishment clause of the 1st amendment/ and set up lemon test.
Miller v. California
explicit material not protected by 1st amendment. obscenity test changed. to whether it lacks value.
Roe v. Wade
established national abortion guidelines
US v. Nixon
executive privilege but not in criminal cases
Buckley v. Valeo
Frist amendment rtects campaign spending
Gregg v. Georgia
death penalty not cruel and unusual punishment.
U.C. Regents v. Bakke
strict quotas (racial) are unconstitutional
New Jersey v. T.L.O
school was right to conduct the search and the rolling papers were appropriate probable cause.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
states could have more leeway on regulating abortion
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
states were given more leeway in regulating abortions
Hustler v. Falwell
a public figure can not recover libel under grounds of emotional distress without showing that the offending publication contained a false statement of fact, which was made with "actual malice"
Employment Division v. Smith (aka Oregon v. Smith)
Can prohibit peyote because it was a neutral law and not one that discriminates against one religion
Texas v. Johnson
Flag burning is a protected form of symbolic speech.
US v. Eichman
said Flag Protection Act was unconstitutional
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
state regulations of abortion cannot pose an undue burden on women.
Shaw v. Reno
Race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries.
U.S. v Lopez
there are limitations on Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce.
Romer v. Evans
Colorado trying to ban any acts protecting homesexuals was unconstitutional
Printz v US
Congress did not have the right to mandate background checks on gun owners and that this was a right left to the states.
Clinton v City of New York
Presidential line item veto is unconstitutional
Bush v Gore
equal protection and equal counting of votes
Stenberg v Carhart
prohibiting partial birth abortions placed an undue burden on the mother/ unconstitutional because act did not providle any exceptions except danger of death.
US v Morrison
The Violence against women act which provided civil punishment for gender motivated crimes could not be based off of the commerce clause because it did not affect commerce.
Zelman v Simmons-Harris
Public money can be used to send disadvantaged children to religious schools with tuition vouchers.
Ashcroft V ACLU
The Child Online Protection Act was unconstitutional because did not provide effective means as to evaluate what material was appropriate and inappropriate. Porn act
Lawrence v Texas
Texas does not have right to prevent gays to engage in certain private consensual acts. right to privacy, equal protection
Gratz v Bollinger
Struck down the use of "bonus points" for race in admissions
Grutter v Bollinger
allowed the use of race as a general factor in admissions
Kelo v City of New London
Eminent Domain case, local gov'ts may force the sale of private property and make way for private economic development when officials decide it would benefit the public.
Boumediene v Bush
Man suspected in attack on US embassy was held in Guantanamo Bay with no writ of habeas Corpus. Unconstitutional, still deserves 5th amendment rights.
District of Columbia v Heller
private gun holders allowed to hold guns loaded and stuff
Safford United School District v Redding
little girl strip searched, unreasonable search and seizure
McDonald v Chicago
incorporated second amendment to the states
Citizens United v Federal Elections Commission
Corporate spending cannot be limited in political campaigns, in this example, the movie hillary.
Snyder v Phelps
westboro baptist chuch. freedom of speech and stuff.
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