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Psychopathology Chapter 8
Terms in this set (44)
The chief motivating factor in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa is
a. a desire to purge.
b. an overwhelming drive to eat.
c. an overwhelming urge to be thin.
d. a desire to starve oneself.
When individuals with anorexia nervosa have been evaluated over long periods of time, it has been found that the percentage of individuals who die as a result of their disorder is ____ percent.
As many as ____ percent of anorexia nervosa deaths are due to suicide.
Eating disorders are most prevalent in
a. Western cultures where food is scarce.
b. Western cultures where food is plentiful.
c. non-Western cultures where food is scarce.
d. non-Western cultures where food is plentiful.
Since about 1960, most Westernized countries have experienced a dramatic
a. decrease in the incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
b. increase in the incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
c. increase in the incidence of anorexia nervosa but a decrease in the incidence of bulimia nervosa.
d. increase in the incidence of bulimia nervosa but no change in the rate of anorexia nervosa.
Which of the following represents the typical profile of a patient with either anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa?
a. Young, white, female, upper socioeconomic status, socially competitive environment
b. Young, white, female, any socioeconomic status, history of depression
c. Young, female, any race, any socioeconomic status, highly competitive
d. Any age, female, white, upper socioeconomic status, few friends
Jody sometimes eats more than just about any other girl that you know. You wonder if her eating sometimes could be considered bingeing. In order to determine this, you would have to know
a. the caloric intake of the foods.
b. whether she is eating junk foods
c. whether eating gets to be out of her control.
d. the situations under which she eats a great deal.
Susan, a woman of relatively normal weight, sometimes eats huge quantities of junk food with no ability to stop herself. She follows this with long periods of complete fasting. Based on this information, Susan would
a. be diagnosed with bulimia nervosa.
b. be diagnosed with anorexia nervosa.
c. not be diagnosed with any disorder because she is of normal weight.
d. not be diagnosed with bulimia nervosa because she is not purging.
Amy is a young woman who is very competitive and comes from a high-achieving, wealthy family. She is very social and likes the fact that she is quite popular. She believes that her popularity is dependent on the weight and shape of her body. Amy has a boyfriend but worries that she may care more about their relationship than he does. The feature that puts Amy most at risk for an eating disorder is her
a. belief that her weight and body shape influence her popularity.
b. belief that her boyfriend cares less about the relationship than she does.
c. successful family.
d. competitive nature.
Most individuals with bulimia nervosa are
a. of fairly normal body weight.
b. significantly overweight.
c. significantly underweight.
d. overweight during the development of the disorder but become underweight as the disorder progresses
Patients with bulimia nervosa often present with additional psychological disorders, particularly ________ and ________.
a. body dysmorphic disorder; substance disorders
b. mood disorders; sexual disorders
c. anxiety disorders; mood disorders
d. obsessive compulsive disorder; sexual disorders
The hallmark of anorexia nervosa is
a. food refusal.
b. a binge-purge cycle.
c. 15 percent or lower weight than is expected for that height and body size
d. a morbid fear of gaining weight and behaviors to lose weight.
The most common reason that people with anorexia nervosa generally do not seek treatment on their own is that they
a. are ashamed of their disorder.
b. fear that they will be hospitalized.
c. do not see themselves as too thin.
d. have little desire for food.
Recent research suggests that the restricting and bingeing/purging subtypes of anorexia nervosa
a. Alternate in the same person in a cyclic fashion..
b. have completely different causes.
c. show few differences in severity of symptoms or personality.
d. are useless distinctions of the same disorder
The approximate percentage of patients with eating disorders who will experience depression at some point in their lives is approximately ____ percent.
Individuals who experience loss of control of their eating and consume great quantities of food but do not engage in any attempts to compensate for their binge would be diagnosed with
a. bulimia nervosa, nonpurging type.
b. binge eating disorder.
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
d. buffet disorder.
Which of the following statements is true?
a. Eating disorders are a way of expressing depression.
b. Eating disorders have a high comorbidity with posttraumatic stress disorder.
c. Over 80% of people with bulimia had an anxiety disorder at some point during their lives.
d. Twenty to thirty percent of all people with bulimia nervosa meet the criteria for a mood disorder during the course of their eating disorder.
The median range for onset for bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa is
a. 18 to 21.
b. 8 to 15.
c. 20 to 26.
A study of foreign-born students who are attending Western universities shows that
a. anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa do not occur in students who were raised in countries where these disorders do not exist.
b. anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are observed in some students who were raised in countries where these disorders do not exist.
c. anorexia nervosa, but not bulimia nervosa, has been observed in some students who were raised in countries where these disorders do not exist.
d. bulimia nervosa, but not anorexia nervosa, has been observed in some students who were raised in countries where these disorders do not exist.
Which of the following might help to explain the vast differences in the incidence of eating disorders among men and women?
a. The influence of behavioral genetics
b. The fact that boys are encouraged to play sports and girls to be active in social functions
c. The fact that puberty brings boys' bodies closer to the societal ideal and girls' bodies further from the societal ideal
d. The differences in the way boys and girls tend to gain weight from overeating
When considering all the factors that influence the development of psychological disorders, it seems that that the _______ is unique in the extent of its role in eating disorders.
a. strong influence of genetics
b. role of family instability
c. power of neurobiological influences
d. influence of society and culture
The increase in the incidence of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa has been referred to as a "collision between our culture and our physiology." The most accurate interpretation of this statement is that
a. people have become too dependent on media determinations of beauty.
b. media standards of beauty are increasingly unattainable for the average woman.
c. dieting has become a fad that has been taken to an extreme.
d. beauty is now being defined by different cultures in society than before.
When women are asked to identify the most attractive female body weight, they typically identify a weight that is
a. lower than the weight identified by men.
b. the same as the weight identified by men.
c. higher than the weight identified by men.
d. 20 percent lower than their own body weight.
When men are asked to identify the ideal male body, they typically select a body weight that is about
a. equal to their own.
b. 28 pounds more muscular than their own.
c. equal to the average male of their age.
d. 15 pounds lighter than their own.
Which of the following statements is true?
a. Once bulimia nervosa develops, it is virtually untreatable.
b. Once bulimia nervosa develops, it tends to be chronic if untreated.
c. People with bulimia nervosa eventually shift to symptoms of other eating disorders.
d. Bulimia nervosa is more resistant to treatment than anorexia nervosa
Which of the following young women appears to be at the highest risk for developing an eating disorder?
a. Linda, whose mom and dad recently divorced
b. Carla, whose family members always seem to be fighting with each other
c. Sandy, whose family emphasizes achievement, support, and communication
d. Bonnie, whose family is perfectionistic, successful and, eager to maintain harmony
Which of the following statements is true about individuals with an eating disorder?
a. They have a diminished sense of personal control.
b. They may manifest as having strikingly low self-esteem.
c. They display more perfectionistic attitudes
d. All of the above
The families of patients with anorexia nervosa are typically characterized as
a. dysfunctional and disorganized.
b. successful and perfectionistic.
c. reserved and quiet.
d. no different than the average family.
The families of patients with anorexia nervosa are typically characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
a. open communication.
b. high achievement.
d. concern with external appearances.
Genetic influences on eating disorders most likely involve
a. a specific gene for each actual eating disorder.
b. an inherited personality tendency that may make development of an eating disorder more likely.
c. multiple genes interacting in ways not yet determined and that directly produce eating disordered behavior.
d. recessive genes.
Which of the following statements is true with regard to drug treatments for patients with anorexia nervosa?
a. Medications have not generally been found to be effective for the treatment of anorexia nervosa.
b. Antidepressants have some effectiveness in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.
c. Anti-anxiety medications have some effectiveness in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.
d. Antipsychotic medications have been found to be effective for the treatment of anorexia nervosa.
With regard to drug treatments for patients with bulimia nervosa, which of the following statements is true?
a. Medications have not been found to be effective for the treatment of bulimia nervosa.
b. Antidepressants have some effectiveness in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.
c. Benzodiazepine medications have some effectiveness in the treatment of bulimia nervosa
d. Antipsychotic medications have been found to be effective for the treatment of bulimia nervosa
Matilda has had anorexia nervosa for several years. She started losing weight because her family said she needed to lose a few pounds. A crucial part of treatment for Matilda is family therapy that focuses on the issues regarding
a. attitudes toward body shape and image distortions.
b. negative communications in the family regarding food and eating.
c. dysfunctional communication in the family regarding food and eating.
d. all of the above
Programs that have the best chance of success for preventing eating disorders
a. should be administered to all girls under 15 years of age to prevent the disorder from developing.
b. should be administered to girls under 15 yrs, of age who are concerned about being overweight.
c. should be administered to all girls 15 years of age or older to prevent the disorder from developing
d. should be administered to girls 15 years of age or older who are concerned about being overwight.
An important aspect of the cognitive-behavioral approach to the treatment of bulimia nervosa is that it involves
a. changing patients' dysfunctional thoughts regarding their weight and previous weight control strategies.
b. helping the patient's family learn new ways of interacting with each other and with the patient.
c. changing the type and frequency of reinforcement associated with being an identified patient.
d. making sure that the patient has a lot of quiet time where she can be alone.
Studies of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for bulimia nervosa have demonstrated
a. significant short-term gains in the reduction of purging but little change in binge eating behavior.
b. significant short-term gains in the reduction of binge eating but no long-term gains.
c. a few short-term gains in the reduction of binge eating and purging but no long-term gains.
d. significant short- and long-term gains in the reduction of binge eating and purging.
One intriguing result from the studies comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) for bulimia nervosa is the finding that
a. IPT is more effective in the short term, but CBT is more effective when we look at how well patients are doing one year following treatment.
b. IPT and CBT appear to be indistinguishable in terms of their effectiveness in the short and long term, despite their very different approaches.
c. IPT is always more effective than CBT.
d. CBT is more effective in the short term, but IPT patients "catch up" and will do as well as CBT patients one year after treatment.
Based on the research reported in your text regarding available treatments for bulimia nervosa, we can conclude that treatment that focuses on ________ and ________ is most effective in gaining rapid control of bulimia nervosa and maintaining these gains over the long term.
a. dysfunctional thoughts; actual disordered behaviors
b. family functioning; social relationships
c. classical conditioning; operant learning
d. biological processes; genetics
The hallmark of bulimia nervosa is
a. Repeated vomiting
b. Out of control eating followed by compensatory behavior
c. Over-exercise in conjunction with fasting
d. Being extremely underweight
The most serious medical consequence of bulimia nervosa excluding death is potential
a. electrolyte imbalance.
b. salivary gland damage.
d. tooth erosion.
Many clinicians suggest that the most difficult part of treatment for anorexia nervosa, and the part of treatment where many people with anorexia nervosa are not successful, is
a. initial weight gain.
b. admitting that there is a problem and agreeing to begin treatment.
c. changing their attitudes regarding body and self-image
d. when they become bulimic.
. In studies of Internet-based eating disorder prevention programs such as the "student bodies program,"
a. the participants showed no beneficial effects.
b. participants reported improvement in body image and decreased drive for thinness.
c. Virtually no participant has developed symptoms of an eating disorder.
d. the drop-out rate has been extremely high.
Two forms of maladaptive eating patterns associated with obesity are ________ and ________.
a. binge eating disorder; night eating syndrome
b. binge eating disorder; pica
c. pica; night eating syndrome
d. night eating syndrome; caloric deregulative disorder
Individuals who experience less control over eating and feelings of withdrawal if access to food is limited show similar patterns of _____________ as do those with substance abuse.
a. Impulsive behavior
b. Personality dysfunction
c. Hormone imbalance
d. Reward neurocircuitry in the brain
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
PSYC 301 Chapter 4
PSYC 301 Chapter 11
PSYC 301 Chapter 12
Psychopathology Chapter 4
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