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Sweta Prasad

Hawthorne Effect: 'The Attention Effect"

Participants perform better when they are being observed and when the light was increased
to get rid of: experimental group with and one without attention

Three Groups Used for Controlling Hawthorne effect

1. Experimental Group
2. Control Group with Attention
3. Control Group without Attention


A source of confusion regarding an explanation for a treatment; makes it difficult to explain, a situation where the effect of one variable on the response variable cannot be separated from the effect of another variable on the response variable.

Double Blind Experiment

an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment

Projective Techniques

a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual's personality

Sampling Error

the difference between a sample's results and the true result if the entire population had been interviewed

Nonchance error

Errors due to bias; this type of error is not reduced by increasing the sample size

purposive sampling

non-probability design in which you handpick subjects on the basis of personal judgment about their representativeness.

Snowball Sampling

selection of participants through referrals from earlier participants; also called network sampling

Stratified Sampling

the population is divided into subpopulations (strata) and random samples are taken of each stratum


giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed

Face validity

The extent to which a test seems on its surface to be measuring what it purports to measure

Internal Validity

the characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable

Content Validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).

Biased Sample

A group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members did not have an equal chance of being chosen

Unbiased Sample

A sample is this if every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected

True Experiment

an experiment in which potentially confounding variables are satisfactorily controlled, usually by (a) random assignment of participants to experimental conditions or (b) sequencing of experimental conditions

Construct Validity

Extent to which a selection device measures the theoretical construct or trait (e.g., intelligence or mechanical comprehension).

Focus Groups

A group interview technique that obtains data through discussion between research participants in a group setting.

Advantages of Focus Groups

• Advantages: relatively inexpensive, giving researcher immediate feedback, they raise issues that merit further studies, test clarity and fairness or survey questions

Disadvantages of Focus Groups

-Ease of understanding may make it too compelling
-Participants recruited may not be typical
-Setting may make participants uncomfortable
-Moderator bias
-Some participants may dominate the conversation

Threats to internal validity

1) maturation of subjects (psychological and physical changes), 2) mortality (subjects withdrawing), 3) instruments used to measure the bx or trait, 4) statistical regression (high or low scores move toward mean if measure used again)

Cluster Sampling

dividing a population into subgroups (clusters) and forming a sample by randomly selecting clusters and including all individuals or objects in the selected clusters in the sample

Self Disclosure

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

Data Triangulation

When a researcher uses multiple sources for collecting data (ie. multiple intervews with different people, all the people are different sources)

Methods Triangulation

When a researcher uses multiple methods for collecting data (ie. interview, survey, observations)

Researcher Triangulation

When multiple researchers are used to collect data

Participant observation

a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities

interobserver reliability

when similar measurements are obtained by different observers rating the same persons, events, or places- studies are said to have greater reliability

intact groups

Use of groups that are not assigned at random (example: grouped by convenience)
O_ _ _ X_ _ _ O_ _ _
1. Strong possibility that groups are not initially the
same (selection).
2. Selection - History Interaction: because they were
not chosen randomly, they may be systematically
subjected to different life experiences.
3. Selection - Maturation Interaction: Two groups
may have been at different developmental stages
during the pretest, which would have led to
different rates of maturation.
4. Mortality: Differential loss of participants from the
groups tho be compared

Pre Post Randomized Design

Group 1 is randomized, pretested, given treatment, and then posted tested. Group 2 is randomized, pretested, given no therapy, and then post tested., a-two groups
b-one group gets treatment, both get pretest

probing techniques

a) The silent probe- best way to encourage someone to elaborate is by not saying nothing at all
b) Overt encouragement- simple ways to directly encourage response but not play into the interviews bias... Okay and uh huh is sufficient enough
c) Elaboration- By asking for more info
d) Ask for clarification
e) Repetition

Projective Techniques

Pictorial (thematic apperception test (TAT), Rorschah Test, projective cartoon), verbal (word association, sentence completion), expressive (playing with dolls, drawing, painting, role playing).

Qualitative v. Quantitative

If you are observing and writing descriptions of the behavior of a group of people, that is qualitative. If you are looking at the frequencies of certain types of behavior, that is quantitative.Basically, you can think of qualitative data as words, and quantitative data as numbers.

John Henry Effect

People in ontrol group come to know about their inferior status and try to outperform those in experimental group. (get rid of : try to hide information from participant)

Placebo Effect

try to give similar treatments to both groups; one group will be given actual cancer medication, other will be given sugar pill

Demand characteristic

Participant triest to please ou by giving a certain answer (try to hide expectations)

Advantages of Projective Techniques

provides rich data reduces social desirablity


Highly trained researcher are required to interpret the results, can be expensive, time consuming, non numerical results based on interpreters ideas, participants do not necessarily represent the greater population

Types of Projective techniques

Word Association: A word is given and participant is asked to respond.
Expression Technique: Participant is asked to express the feeling or attitude of other people (ie: mimic Charlie Chaplin).
Completion Test: Participant is asked to complete a sentence of a story.
Construct Test: Write about a picture.
Inkblot Test: Shown an abstract inkblot and asked what they see; the participant projects a certain image, feeling, or idea about the inkblot.


1 reviewing the purpose of the study
2 reviewing the procedures used
offering to share results with participants when they become available

How to improve content validity

Avoid using ambiguous words
Consider educational levels of participants
Questions should convey the same meaning to all the participants

PRetest posttest randomized control group design

Group 1 is randomized, pretested, given treatment, and then posted tested. Group 2 is randomized, pretested, given no therapy, and then post tested.
Randomization creates comparability
Advantage of using a pretest is that it permits researchers to determine how much each group has gained, not just whether they are different at the end of the experiment
However, sometimes having a pretest causes a problem because it can sensitize participants to the experimental treatment and, in effect, become part of the treatment.

Posttest only randomized control group design

An experiment without a pretest
Reduces pretest-sensitization caused by the Pre,Post Test
Randomization creates comparability

Solomon Randomized Four Group Design

"The Best of Both Designs" combination of designs A and B
Has four groups
Advantage: researchers can compare the first two groups to determine how much gain is achieved and can also compare the last two groups to determine whether the treatment is more effective than the control condition in the absence of a pretest (without pretest sensitization)
Disadvantage: a researcher must begin with a reasonably large pool of participants so that when they are divided into four groups, each of the groups will have a sufficient number to yield reliable results.

One Group Pretest Posttest Design

Researcher pretests, treats, and then posttests one group of participants
Disadvantages: (possible internal validity)
History- other environmental influences on the participants between the pretest and the posttest
Maturation- participants became older, wiser, or smarter
Instrumentation- possible changes in measurement procedure from the time it was used as a pretest to the time it was used as a posttest
Testing- effects of the pretest on the performance exhibited on the posttest
Statistical Regression- occurs only if participants are selected on the basis of their extreme scores.
No comparability
The interpretation of pretest to posttest change is confounded by multiple explanations

One Shot Case Study

one group is given a treatment followed by a test
For instructional purposes (ie. a teacher provides instruction on a unit of material and follows it with an achievement test)
Cannot know causation, because the design fails to make comparisons

Static Group Comparison Design


Nonequivalent Control Group Design

Researchers use two comparison groups that are not formed at random
Selection- Very strong possibility that the two groups are not initially the same in all respects
They may be systematically subjected to different life experiences
Selection- maturation interactions-- perhaps the two groups, on average, were at somewat different developmental stages at the time of pretest, which would have led to different rates of maturation in the two groups, which could affect self-concept
Mortality- diffferential loss of participants from the groups to be compared
Researchers often use some form of matching to increase the internal validity of the results; however there can still be a danger that the two groups may not have been matched on all relavant variables

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