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Pathophysiology HESI final
Get Quizlet's official HESI A2 - 1 term, 1 practice question, 1 full practice test
Terms in this set (75)
What kind of nursing implications will come with diverticulosis?
encourage 2-3 L of fluid per day, assess stools for color, consistency, frequency, and presence, and offer high dietary roughage.
What are the warning signs of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state
polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia and also an elevated fever
What is the glucose level in a hyperosmolar hyperglycemia state?
How severe is the dehydration that comes with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state?
it is so bad it can send you into a diabetic coma.
What are the classifications of osteoporosis?
type 1 is associated with early menopausal estrogen deficiency, type 2 is senile osteoporosis with calcium with calcium deficiency
What kind of nursing implications come with osteoporosis?
implement an exercise regimen that incorporates weight bearing exercises and instruct on adequate calcium intake through diet or supplements
How can you test hCG. hormones
you can test for detection by blood test about 11 days after conceptions and about 14 days after conception by urine test. The levels will peak in the first 8-11 weeks
Explain starling's law
the greater the muscle fibers are stretched, the more the heart can pump out blood more forcefully, so the CO will be increased.
What is tissue plasminogen activator?
it is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for clot breakdown
When would you use tissue plasminogen activator?
for treatment of acute ischemic stroke
What is cardiac tamponade?
It is compression of heart muscles by excess fluid or blood within the pericardial sac
What would you hear in someone who has cardiac tamponade?
you would hear a friction rub
Where do you want your HDL levels to be at?
What is the most abundant plasma protein?
What is the purpose of albumin?
it helps move many small molecules through the blood
When would you have decreased albumin?
After weight-loss surgery, Crohn's disease, low-protein diets, sprue, whipple disease
What are the 2 dysfunctions of CHF
diastolic dysfunction and systolic dysfunction
What is diastolic dysfunction?
occurs when ventricles pump against extremely high afterload as in primary HTN
What is systolic dysfunction
occurs when ventricles experience damage as in MI and ventricle cannot contract effectively. This leads to an increase in preload.
What is the pathological definition of emphysema?
It is breakdown of elastin and collagen fiber network of alveoli whereby alveoli enlarge or walls are destroyed.
How would a person's breathing be affected with emphysema ?
The person would starts to hyperventilate to maintain ABGs. Cyanosis will come later in emphysema.
What is the cause of Addison's disease?
it is a deficit of adrenocorticotropic hormones.
What kind of traumas can cause hypo function of the adrenal cortex?
surgical removal, infection or tumor of adrenal glands, head trauma (because it affects the pituitary)
How is sodium affected in decreased function of the adrenal hormones?
increased NA excretion.
What is pannus
vascular granulation tissue that forms in synovial membrane of clients with RA
What are the diagnostic criteria for RA?
morning stiffness for at least 1 hour and persisting over at least 6 weeks, arthritis with swelling or effusion of 3 or more joints persisting for at least 6 weeks.
What can exacerbate MS
stress, pregnancy, illness, fever, and fatigue
What are the signs/symptoms of MS
visual disturbances, spasticity of muscles, nystagmus, tremors, and gait instability
What are the types shock?
hypoventilation, cardiogenic, obstructive, or disruptive
What causes diabetes insipidus?
ADH insufficiency, results in excess fluid excretion
condition where there are stones present in the gall bladder
How are gallstones formed?
they formed when cholesterol and calcium precipitate as solid crystals within mucous lining of gallbladder
What kind of foods should you avoid with cholelithiasis?
high fat foods, whole milk products, hot dogs, chocolate and cheese
When would you use in an intra-aortic balloon pump?
in cardiogenic shock
What would the ST segment look like post MI?
a straight line between S wave and the beginning of the T wave
What is the glucose level for hyperglycemia in diabetes?
What will you find in the urine with diabetes?
ketones and glucose
What is the hyper osmolality level in HHNK
What is in the urine with HHNK?
What is the level of hypoglycemia?
What are the microvascular complications for diabetes?
neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, cardiopathy (heart disease), foot ulcerations
What are the stages of general adaptation syndrome
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
What is dysentery?
inflammation of the intestine causing diarrhea with blood.
Where does amylase get produced?
it is produced by the salivary glands and pancreas.
What is benign prostatic hypertrophy?
noncancerous enlargement of prostate gland because of hyperplasia or hypertrophy.
High amylase and lipase indicates?
Why does BPH occur?
because of an increased estrogen and a decrease in testosterone
What is the cause of PAD and CAD?
What is the cause of jaundice?
it is abnormally high in-conjugated bile in the blood
What is azotemia?
nitrogenic waste in the blood
What is an indirect way to measure GFR?
BUN and creatinine
Kidney failure can lead to ...
uremia (urine in the blood)
What is the normal BUN levels?
What is the normal creatinine levels?
What is the normal AV node rate?
40 to 60.
What can cause hepatic encephalopathy?
The liver not functioning and ammonia not being broken down and it building up and crossing the BBB
What is disseminated intravascular coagulation?
it is a complex and abnormal response of the body's normal clotting mechanisms to an injury
What will you give a patient with DIC?
heparin to prevent further clots.
What are the normal platelet levels?
What is thrombocytopenia?
lower than 150
What are the two types of leukemias?
Acute & chronic lymphocytic leukemia & acute& chronic myelogenous leukemia
What kind of leukemia is the most common in children?
What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
degenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons of cerebral cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord that results in total paralysis
What is parkinsons disease?
progressive gradual neurological degenerative disorder of brain characterized by "resting" tremors bradykinesia, and musculoskeletal rigidity or stiffness
What is GFR in fourth stage chronic renal failure?
less than 5%
What is the normal range for CO2?
What is the normal range for bicarb?
Where does co2 come form?
Where does bicarb come from?
What is gout
it is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated uric acid levels in blood resulting in deposition or urate crystals in synovial fluid and joint tissues. The uric acid level is above 8.5
What kind of dietary limitations will someone with gout be put on?
a purin restricted diet: shellfish, organ meats, red wine, beer, and red meat, and alcohol aggravates it.
What is hemophilia A?
deficiency in factor 8
what is hemophilia B?
deficiency in 9
What is oxygen toxicity?
When the oxygen concentration is more than 50%
What will dialysis help regulate?
it will help regulate potassium levels of the body
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