History of American Sports Final Exam

Terms in this set (94)

(1969-1992) The second modern era known as either the "first expansion" or "two-division" era began in 1969. Two more teams were added to each league and it was time for a realignment. Leagues were divided into an east and west division consisting of 6 teams each and the winners would play each other in a league championship series with the winners moving on to represent their leagues in the World Series. The free agency rule, pitch count, and relief pitchers were new in this era. End of Dynasties, wins were spread around. Reasons: 1. Amateur draft comes in the 60s by reverse order of teams so the worse teams get the top picks 2. Sheer numbers, more teams and less chance to win with more teams, players more divided 3. End of reserve clause- free agency, you could no longer reserve rights to a player, Curt Flood and Jim Catfish Hunter both rallied for the reserve clause to be gone. Hunter went to new owner of the Yankees and was offered a contract. This lead to the modification of the reserve clause, if a guy has been on a team for 6 years he can be free and by the late 70s free agency is open and salaries go up. Speed and Size- bigger people, faster, better arms. Change in the way the infield plays, they moved back because the ball was being hit harder. Records were being beat especially the stolen bases one. Relief Pitching- specialized, closer pitchers- their salaries slowly rose. Pitch Count- magic number is 100, some think it is legitimate and others think that 100 is babying the pitchers, it can become a psycho social.
(1993-present) (Wild Card Era, Steroid Era, 2nd Expansion) In 1993, major league baseball expanded form 26 teams to 28 with the addition of the Florida Marlins and the Colorado Rockies—both of which joined the National League. There were 3 divisions in each league—East, Central, West. One of the theses of the third era is its attendance decline. The year 1993 was a milestone year for baseball attendance—for the first time total attendance topped 70 million (31,000 per game), in 1995 numbers dropped to just over 25,000 a game. It took until 2006 before the average attendance reached pre-strike numbers. The Return of the Dynasty, Steroid Use, and the Wild Card were introduced in this era. Attendance Decline- because in 1994 there was a work stoppage strike, this ends the season and the post season (nobody won the World Series in 1994), hasn't bounced back as well as it used to be. Return of Dynasty- Yankees would win their division for 7-8 straight years and were back, the braves were a dynasty in the national league. Power Surge- amazing numbers that begin in the 90s. Why? Juice ball- fly out of the park, Dilution of pitching talent, more teams not as many good pitchers to fill teams, Smaller parks- hit the ball farther, Decreased strike zone, Increased weight training and performance enhancing drugs. End of Curses- 3 big curses: Curse of the bambino- broke in 2004, Curse of the Black Socks- broke in 2005, Curse of the Billy Goat- in 1945 the last time the Cubs went to the world series- a guy wanted to bring a goat to the world series and they wouldn't let him, he cursed the Cubs and they haven't returned to the World Series.