94 terms

History of American Sports Final Exam

University of Nebraska-Lincoln
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American Basketball Association
A rival league to the NCA that formed in 1967. It forced the NBA into a merger in 1976. (the Merger occurred because they brought dunking and 3 pt shots to the game
Bill Russell
A contemporary of Chamberlain's who played enter for the San Francisco Dons. They never met in college but would later develop an intense rivalry in the NBA. He coached the Celtics and won 11 championships in 13 years, in 1968 he was the first ever african American in the NBA(player coach)
Bill Walton
Wooden's next superstar center after Alcindor's graduation who contributed to Bruins championships in 1972 and 1973
David Stern
NBA commissioner who came into the league the same year as Jordan(1984) and with the help of Jordan, Bird and Magic and an innovative marketing play, brought the NBA into the Golden Age
James Naismith
Canadian native who invented the game of basketball while an instructor at the YMCA training school in Springfield, MA. (He had an unruly group of men and needed an indoor sport between seasons)
Ned Irish
Sportswriter who organized college basketball tournaments in Madison Square Garden in the 1930s to showcase the best teams in the county. They became known as the Garden Games
Phog Allen
Player and protege of Naismith who took over for him as coach in 1907. After leaving for a decade he returned in 1909 and coached until 1956 guiding the school to 746 victories.
Georger Mikan
A big man who preceded Chamberlain (later became commissioner of the ABA) and played for DePaul in the mid 1940s. When his team defeated Rhode Island in 1945 to win the NIT Tournament he scored 53 points which was more than the entire opposing team. He was named the NCAA player of the year in 1944-45
Garden Games
Created by Ned Irish who started organized basketball tournaments in Madison Square Garden in the 1930s to showcase the best teams in the country (they take over the relief games). They where extremely successful and important for nationalizing college basketball.
Lew Alcindor
Wooden's first superstar center who helped the Bruins win three consecutive champions(1967-69). He would later convert to Muslim faith and change his name to Kareem Abdul-Jabar. He holds records including highest career scoring and most points in a single game.
March Madness
During the 1980's, the NCAA basketball tournament expanded to 64 teams and became a 3 week miniseries culminating with the final weekend in which the semi-finals and finals were played in which became known as the final 4 (64 teams, 3 week tournament).
Michael Jordan
Emerged as arguably the greatest player of all time and helped create the Chicago Bills dynasty of the 1990's. He played a big part in bringing basketball into the golden age and was on the Olympic Dream Team.
NBA (National Basketball Association)
In 1949 the NBL and BAA merged to create this. It began with the 17 teams in 3 divisions. The Mikan-led Lakers were considered their first dynasty
NIT (National Invitational Tournament)
Began in 1938, it was the first college basketball tournament held at the ned of the season that would crown the national champion on the court as opposed to sportswriters' votes. The NCAA Tournament would first be held the following year. Started by the Metropolitan Basketball Writers Association, they invited the best teams in the country an the winner was the national champion. The first tournament was only 6 teams, in 1948 there were 8, and by 1950 there were 12. It was later the next best tournament.
Original Celtics
Early professional barnstorming team in 1920s based out of New York. Whatever town wanted to play them, they would. Sometimes they would play to a tie on purpose and ask for more money to finish the game. They formed prior to WWI and became a dominant force in the 1920s.
Harlem Globetrotters
Began as an all-black barnstorming team in the 1920s by Abraham Saperstein. They started in Chicago and never left the country in the beginning. They eventually developed into a team more known for their showmanship than their serious basketball abilities/
UCLA
College basketball's first major dynasty in the 1960s and 70s. They where coached by John Wooden who won an incredible ten national championships and a record 88-game win streak.
John Wooden
Coached UCLA, college basketball's first major dynasty in the 60s and 70s. He won an incredible ten national championships, 7 in a row, and had a record 88-game win streak.
Kansas Basketball
An early power in Naismith's game who actually hired Naismith to be a PE instructor and first coach of their basketball team
Wilt Chamberlain
7'1 Center for the Univ. of Kansas. Although he was recruited by Phog Allen he did not play for the legendary coach because of his retirement. He was so dominant that many rules were changed as a result of him. He played for the Globetrotters before joining the NBA.
Cage Game
A court would have a cage around it and there were no out of bounds. It was a rough game that never stopped. Players were called cagers.
Birth of Basketball
Niasmith went to the YMCA training school in 1891 and one of the first tasks he was given in the fall of 1891 by his boss, Luther Gulick was to devise a game that would accomplish two goals; one, span the time between football and baseball during the long winters, and two, restore order in an unruly gym class of hyper competitive types who were bored with gymnastics. Naismith wanted a ball involved and there were no bats, sticks, or rackets involved. To move the ball, players would have to pass to each other. Remembering the game "duck on a rock" he thought the goal should be evaluated so balls would have to be lofted in the air over players to count as a score. He found 2 peach basketballs and fastened them 10 ft above the floor. The first game was played December 21, 1891 and was a huge hit.
College Basketball
The Univ. of Kansas became a basketball power and Naismith can be credited for this power as he took a job in 1898 as the chapel director, PE instructor, and basketball coach. The game quickly took off. Tournaments such as the Garden Tournament later became popular.
Early Pro Basketball
The NBA was established in 1949 and professional basketball was born. Trenton, NJ is often given with fielding the first all-paid team. It was originally organized by the YMCA but they were part of a movement to move basketball away from the YMCA. The court was enclosed in a cage. The Cage kept the game continuously going and it kept the spectators out of the way. When the first professional league was formed the cage was mandatory. The first team known nationally was the Original Celtics.
Point-Shaving Scandal
In January 1951, NY District Attorney Frank Hogan arrested 7 men including 3 of the star players of the CCNY team for point shaving for the gamblers. The point spread was an innovation that allowed gamblers to bet on the outcomes of games based on how many points the winning team won by. Eventually the scandal spread as 32 players from 7 schools were implicated.
Boston Celtics
The Boston Celtics were born with the BAA in 1946 and took their name as tribute to the original celtics. They did not start off very well. In 3 seasons they went 67-101. Harold Red Auerbach began coaching and managing the Celtics to improve the team.
NBA's Golden Age
NBA attendance at gams had increased to nearly 10 million by the ned of the 1970s but tv ratings were down. Despite this, a college game played in 1979 changed the fortune of the NBA over the next decade. Magic Johnson and Larry Bird helped usher in the most successful era the NBA had ever seen. The Celtics drafted Bird and the Lakers drafted Johnson. Both teams saw huge amounts of success after the drafts. After this Michael Jordan and David Stern joined the NBA and they both contributed to the Golden Age. The age seemed to culminate with the 1922 Olympics in Barcelona when the dream team was assembled. Jordan, Bird, and Johnson were joined by other greats and easily won gold. The golden age seemed to end after Jordan left the bulls after 1998.
Rules Changes
A goal tending rule was codified in 1944 to also include touching the ball by a defender while on the rim or on its downward arch toward the basket. In 1945 offensive players were given only 3 seconds to stand in the lane and in 1956 the lane was widened from 6 to 12 ft. In addition, the 2 spots closest to the basket must be occupied by a member of the opposing team of the free throw shooter to prevent easy baskets after a free throw. The following year offensive goal tending was also banned, and grasping the rim was deemed unsportsmanlike conduct. (These rules were put in place because of Wilt Chamberlain).
Magic-Bird Rivalry
The first time the Celtics and Lakers faced each other in the NBA finals was in 1984. Bird got the best of Magic, winning 7 games for his second championship. The rivalry helped spur the golden age in professional basketball
Baseball Video: Inning 6
Judge Landis kept blacks out, Jackie Robinson got a court-martial, Landis died, the Race Man was somebody who was proud of their race (Robinson was a race man), Rickey scouted Robinson, Josh Gibson died, and there is an Anti-Robinson Petition.
Casey Stengel
Manager of the New York Yankees during the 1950s when attendance and television money allowed the team to sign the best players. The Yankees roster was so staked that he was able to implement the platoon system which allowed him to bat left-handed hitters against right-handed pitchers and vice-versa
Platooning
Because left-handed hitters are statistically more successful against right-handed pitcher and vice-versa, Stengel used this to stack his lineup depending on who the opposing pitcher was for that game.
Pitch Count
A phenomenon that began in the 1990s in which coaches would count the number of pitches a pitcher had thrown and when that number hit 100 his performance is usually thought to decline.
Baseball Relocation
During what would be the last subway series until the next century, the idea was floated to to move the Dodgers to LA. Stoneham worked out a deal with officials in San Fransisco and both the Dodgers and the Giants moved out of NY after the 1957 season. Relocations began in 1953 with a string of second teams in cities featuring 2 teams. The first team to leave was the National League Boston Braves to Milwaukee. The St. Louis Browns left to Baltimore where they were renamed the Orioles. The Philadelphia Athletics moved in 1955 to Kansas City. In 1972 the Senators left to Texas to become the Rangers. The LA angles moved to be the California Angels.
3 Eras of Modern Baseball: First Modern Era
(1946-68) Returning soldiers were unsure if there would be jobs for them and people wondered if the Great Depression would return. The returning soldiers filled homes with children and the baby boom occurred. More of these families moved to the suburbs. The families were hesitant to go into cities to watch games, because of dangers of increased crime in cities. Televisions set became popular and because of these two factors, attendance at MLB dames dropped well below the average in the 40s. The Domination of Dynasties, Relocation and Expansion, and The New Age of the Pitcher also occurred during this age. Dynasties: Yankees, Mantel, manager Stengel. Stengel did "platooning", where left handed batters hit off a right handed pitcher and so forth, won 15 American League pennants. Subway Series: Brooklyn Dodgers, never could beat Yankees/ did in 1955 at the World Series. Relocation: teams moved, Dodgers to LA, Boston Braves to Milwaukee then to Atlanta, Athletics to KC. Expansion: 1961 American team added Angels and another team, National League added the Mets and Houston. New Age of Pitcher: strike zone is enlarged, bottom of knees to shoulders. Rules Changes: lowered pitcher's mound 5 inches, umpires have to use "de facto strike zone" where they call balls between the knees and belt, designated hitter can now hit for pitcher.
3 Eras of Modern Baseball: Second Modern Era
(1969-1992) The second modern era known as either the "first expansion" or "two-division" era began in 1969. Two more teams were added to each league and it was time for a realignment. Leagues were divided into an east and west division consisting of 6 teams each and the winners would play each other in a league championship series with the winners moving on to represent their leagues in the World Series. The free agency rule, pitch count, and relief pitchers were new in this era. End of Dynasties, wins were spread around. Reasons: 1. Amateur draft comes in the 60s by reverse order of teams so the worse teams get the top picks 2. Sheer numbers, more teams and less chance to win with more teams, players more divided 3. End of reserve clause- free agency, you could no longer reserve rights to a player, Curt Flood and Jim Catfish Hunter both rallied for the reserve clause to be gone. Hunter went to new owner of the Yankees and was offered a contract. This lead to the modification of the reserve clause, if a guy has been on a team for 6 years he can be free and by the late 70s free agency is open and salaries go up. Speed and Size- bigger people, faster, better arms. Change in the way the infield plays, they moved back because the ball was being hit harder. Records were being beat especially the stolen bases one. Relief Pitching- specialized, closer pitchers- their salaries slowly rose. Pitch Count- magic number is 100, some think it is legitimate and others think that 100 is babying the pitchers, it can become a psycho social.
3 Eras of Modern Baseball: Third Modern Era
(1993-present) (Wild Card Era, Steroid Era, 2nd Expansion) In 1993, major league baseball expanded form 26 teams to 28 with the addition of the Florida Marlins and the Colorado Rockies—both of which joined the National League. There were 3 divisions in each league—East, Central, West. One of the theses of the third era is its attendance decline. The year 1993 was a milestone year for baseball attendance—for the first time total attendance topped 70 million (31,000 per game), in 1995 numbers dropped to just over 25,000 a game. It took until 2006 before the average attendance reached pre-strike numbers. The Return of the Dynasty, Steroid Use, and the Wild Card were introduced in this era. Attendance Decline- because in 1994 there was a work stoppage strike, this ends the season and the post season (nobody won the World Series in 1994), hasn't bounced back as well as it used to be. Return of Dynasty- Yankees would win their division for 7-8 straight years and were back, the braves were a dynasty in the national league. Power Surge- amazing numbers that begin in the 90s. Why? Juice ball- fly out of the park, Dilution of pitching talent, more teams not as many good pitchers to fill teams, Smaller parks- hit the ball farther, Decreased strike zone, Increased weight training and performance enhancing drugs. End of Curses- 3 big curses: Curse of the bambino- broke in 2004, Curse of the Black Socks- broke in 2005, Curse of the Billy Goat- in 1945 the last time the Cubs went to the world series- a guy wanted to bring a goat to the world series and they wouldn't let him, he cursed the Cubs and they haven't returned to the World Series.
Changes brought by TV
In 1947 there were 7,000 TV sets in the United States and by 1950 that number increased to over 7 million. Early television hurt baseball in a dual way—eventually programming provided one of the alternatives to attending games and its poor reception but camera angles did not lend itself well to coverage of the sport. As a result, attendance at major league baseball games during the 50s and 60s dropped to numbers below that of the late 40s. TV ratings remained low even after technology improved. In 1961 Congress passes the Sports Broadcasting Act that the league could negotiate television packages that benefited ever team in the league.
Basebll Expansion
There was a first expansion that included: In 1969 two more teams were added to each league and it was time for a realignment. Leagues were divided into an east and west division consisting of 6 teams each and the winners would play each other in a league championship series with the winners moving on to represent their leagues in the World Series. There was also a second expansion that included: In 1993, major league baseball expanded form 26 teams that had made up its ranks since 1977 to 28 with the addition of the Florida Marlins and the Colorado Rockies—both of which joined the National League. There were 3 divisions in each league—East, Central, West. In 1998, two additional teams were added: Arizona Diamondbacks in the National League West and the Tampa Bay Devil Rays in the American League East.
1960s Baseball Rules Changes
The pitching mound was lowered from 15-10 inches and the umpires were using the de facto strike zone.
New Age of the Pitcher
In 1960, Major League Baseball instructed umpires to enlarge the strike zone. The result was a return to the dominance of the pitchers over the hitters not seen in the game since the dead ball era. Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, and Bob Gibson all helped their teams win a great number of games and championships through pitching. After the rule change, offensive numbers dropped. Prior to the 1969 season, two changes were made. First, the pitching mound was lowered form 15 inches to 10 and second, umpires were instructed to lower the de facto strike zone. This meant that the strike zone the umpire would call would be smaller. The designated hitter was also introduced and these three changes helped lessen the dominance of the pitcher.
Added Speed in Baseball
Increased focus on diet and the growing acceptance of weight training factor in bigger and stronger players. Batters were hitting the ball harder and infielders would play deeper than they had in the past. Because there was also an increase in speed during this time, infielders and outfielders had to have stronger arms to throw from their deeper positions to get the faster runners out. More bases were also being stolen because of this.
Marvin Miller
The MCBPA's (Major League Baseball Players Associations) executive director, he was told by Curt Flood that he wanted to challenge the reserve clause in court as a violation of federal antitrust statues even though it might mean the end of Flood's career. He warned the owners that they needed to revise the clause or there would be problems.
Free agency
Powers in baseball decided that players who had played for 6 seasons became eligible for free agency. Free agency can be credited with helping being parity to the game as it was at least partially responsible for the breakup of teams in the early and mid-70s. It also resulted in a shift away from the owners and toward the players. It was decided that once players played for 6 years, they were eligible for free agency.
Performance Enhancing Drugs
There was a surge of power hitters in the third modern era a plausible explanation was an increase in weight training and the use of performance-enhancing drugs. By 1996, the total home runs was over 177 per team and by 2000 it topped out at 199. The average number of home runs hit by a player increased to nearly 60 per year when it had previously been 45. Sammy Sosa, Mark McGwire, and Barry Bonds were all leaders in hitting during this time. In 2005, Jo Canseco wrote the book Juiced and admitted his own steroid use and implicated that many others were using steroids. In 2004, the Olympic-Style testing was implemented. In 2005, the punishment for violations were increase to 50 and 100 game suspensions for the first and second violations, the third strike was a lifetime ban.
Second Expansion
In 1993, major league baseball expanded from 26 teams to 28 with the addition of the Florida Marlins and Colorado Rockies-- both of which joined the National League. There were 3 divisions in each league-- east, central, west. In 1998, two additional teams were added: Arizona Diamondbacks in the National League West and the Tampa Bay Devil Rays in the American League East.
Wild Card
There were three divisions in each league: East, West, and Central. The champion of each would make the playoffs plus one "wildcard team" made up the next best record in the league.
Marques of Queensberry Rules
In 1865, the 8th Marquess of Queensberry helped devise these rules and they were made public in 1867. One of the main differences with the new rules was rule 8 which stated. The gloves be fair sized of the best quality and new. They were the first published boxing rules that required gloves be worn. Britain accepted the rules but Americans continued bare-knuckle fighting over the next two decades.
Old Q
The fourth Marquess of Queensberry who reportedly would wager on anything-- even his own death. He was more of a con-man than a gambler because of the situations being slanted in his favor
Tom Molineaux
A former slave who was defeated by Tom Cribb. He went to Great Britain and was one of the first Americans fighting overseas.
John L. Sullivan
Became the champion when he defeated Paddy Ryan in 1882. In 1889 he defeated Jake Kilrain to retain the title but he lost it in 1892 to James Corbet. He would take on anyone, went on exhibitions and made bets, he also started to wear gloves. In the Kilrain fight he was older and liked drinking, he won the fight but it was really close. He had a feud with Richard Fox that was good for both of their careers.
Civil War and Boxing
Matches were staged during the war, sometimes between the lines. Some matches got out of hand and led to other things. The war didn't have a good effect on boxing. The reputation worsened and the Queensberry rules weren't being used.
James J. Corbett
Took the title from Sullivan in 1892, it was the first fight to use the Queensberry rules, it was inside under lights, promoted by a fight club, and promoted by different magazines and newspapers. He was Irish but he went to college and was more white collar. He had trainers in athletic clubs and was more of a scientific boxer.
Jack Johnson
Defeated champion Tommy Burns in 1908 to become the first black heavyweight champion. There was a constant search for a white champion (the great white hope) to defeat him. He knocked Burns out to become champion. He was a not a quiet guy, he was cocky, very showy, and dated white women. Tex Rickard promoted the Jefferies fight and he easily won. The powers in boxing wanted to nail him for taking women across state lines for prostitution (Mann Act). He left the US and fought all over the world.
Great White Hope
The search for someone who was white to beat Johnson. The title was supposed to be in its "rightful place"
Tex Rickard
Promoted the Jefferies-Johnson fight. He had built and lost several fortunes as a professional gambler, saloon owner, gold prospector, and sports promoter. His bid of over 100,000 was by far the most ever offered in the history of prizefighting and it was accepted by both parties.
Jack Dempsey
Was to fight Willard in 1919 and he became the new champion. He is the Babe Ruth of boxing, he improved the image of boxing. His promoter was Jack Kearns. He fought Fulton in 1918 and proceeded to defeat every contender that could be found over the next nine months but one. He was later the heavyweight champion of the world. He fought Tunney in the Long Count match and lost and then retired.
Harry Wills
Was considered to be the best challenger during Dempsey's time. He was black and was never given a shot at the title against Dempsey.
Gene Tunney
Fought against Dempsey in 1926. He was regarded as a second-rate fighter, but surprised everyone by staying with Dempsey, finishing the fight, and receiving the unanimous decision. He won the rematch against Dempsey in the Long Count fight by unanimous decision.
Long Count
When Jack Dempsey and Gene Tunney fought a match it was called this. The source of controversy occurred in the seventh round when Dempsey knocked Tunney down and, after the referee asked Dempsey to retire to his corner, he didn't and the start of the referee's count was delayed. The count is taken when a guy is down.
Max Shmeling
German champion who held the title in the early thirties after defeating Jack Sharkey. Sharkey got his revenge by later defeating him. He later fought Joe Louis in major fights that took on international implications as he was seen as representing the Nazis. He held the title for the longest in the 1930s
Joe Louis
Was Sharkey's final fight. Sharkey lost to him and announced his retirement. He lost to Schmeling. He would go on to hold the heavyweight title longer and defend it more times than anyone in history. He was a black-humble fighter. He became friends with Schmeling after their fight. He made a short comeback to make money in the 50s and became friends with Jackie Robinson during WW2.
Rocky Marciano
Heavyweight champ during the 1950s who is the only champ to ever retire undefeated. He defeated Louis in 8 rounds. He became champion a year after that fight and held it until 1956. He was 49-0.
Muhammad Ali/Cassius Clay
Fighter out of Louisville who first came on the scene in the 1960 Olympics when he won the gold medal in the light-heavyweight division. He converted to Islam shorts after winning the heavyweight title in 1964 and rejected his slave name. He would go on to become arguably the greatest fighter of all time and the most recognizable sports figure in the world. He was known as the Louisville Lip. Howard Cosell was his promoter. He defeated Frazier and Foreman. He lost to Leon Spinks and re-matched him to win the title back. He retired in 1979 but came back to try to fight Holmes and lost. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's and in 1999 he was named athlete of the century.
Howard Cosell
Announcer who was one of Ali's greatest defenders. He stood up for Ali when he refused military service when few others did. Both him and Ali recognized the importance of the other in their respective careers. Ali and him were made for each other-- they each loved to talk and he interviewed Ali for show.
Mike Tyson
Became the youngest heavyweight champion in 1986 at the age of 20. One of the most famous fights in history cam in 1997 when he fought former champion Holyfield and bit part of his ear off. Controversy followed him throughout his career. He held the title until 1990. He was accused of rape and served 6 years of prison.
Sugar Rays
Leonard: Namesake of Robinson who won the gold medal in the welterweight division in the 1976 Olympics. He became the welterweight champion in the world in 1979. Retired temporarily in 1991 due to an eye injury but came back one last time to fight in 1997 at the age of 40. Robinson: First superstar boxer who was not a heavyweight. He fought as a welter and middleweight and held and lost titles numerous times in the two decades following WW2. He is often referred to as the best fighter pound-for-pound in history.
NCAA Sanity Code
The NCAA began to allow colleges to pay the tuition for athletes as long as they meet two conditions: first, the student would have to meet the same academic requirements and second, the student would have to show financial need. To enforce the code, the NCAA formed a committee with the power to investigate violations and punish schools up to and including expulsion from the NCAA. The sinful seven refused to abide by the code.
Modern College Football
For the first time a college football game was broadcasted on TV. The biggest change to sports in the postwar was the improvement of technology and proliferation of TV across the country. College football made major changes after the war including the Sanity Code, Walter Byers' change on scholarships creating student-athletes, and rules changes.
Walter Byers
The new executive director of the NCAA who in 1952 decided to allow schools to award athletic scholarships not based on academic standards, and the scholarships would cover tuition, room and board, books, and even money for living expenses. He told schools that those receiving aid would be student-athletes. He would serve as the leader of the NCAA for almost four decades and it was during his reign that the NCAA would grow from nearly powerless to an extremely powerful cartel.
Offensive Formations
Tom Nugent created the I-Formation at Maryland, which allowed offenses to combine rushing and passing attacks. More ground oriented formations were created in Texas: the wishbone attack first used by Darrel Royal at the University of Texas and later adopted by Barry Switzer at Oklahoma. Houston's veer formation would also be an attack that would help its offense gain hundreds of yards on the ground.
Conference Realignments
Major independents like Penn State and Miami joined conferences. Some conferences disbanded and others were formed. The old Southwest Conference dissolved in 1994 and the members joined conferences in the West. The most prominent result was that four schools from Texas merged with the Big 8 conference to form the Big 12. Teams wanted to be in a conference of at least 12 teams to get a playoff game.
Nebraska Football
The University of Nebraska was founded in 1869 and spent the 1870s and 80s trying to establish itself as a legitimate institution of higher learning. On Thanksgiving Day in 1890, the University of Nebraska fielded its first football team and defeated the Omaha YMCA 10-0 in its first ever game. Over the next decade the team would not see a losing season playing under many different coaches and under varying team mascots finally settling on Bugeaters. In 1990 it was decided that a change in the name was needed, and Cy Sherman suggested the Cornhuskers. Walter Booth compiled a record of 46-8-1 in his 6 seasons as head coach. Ewald Stiehm had a record of 35-2-3 in 5 seasons. In 1915 the Cornhuskers defeated Notre Dame in a rivalry game and announced their arrival as a football program. Bob Devaney, Tom Osborne, and Bo Pelini have been coaches since then.
Bob Devaney
Took the head coach position for Nebraska after the 1961 season. He turned things around immediately in 1962 when he guided Nebraska to a 9-2 record and it's first-ever bowl win when they defeated Miami in the Gotham bowl. He was a perfect fit for the emerging television age and hosted weekly televised programs allowing fans to get to know him. In his fourth season the Huskers went undefeated and found themselves playing Alabama in the Orange Bowl for the national championship. He named Tom Osborne his assistant coach and offensive coordinator for the 1969 season. Together they introduced the I-Formation. The 1970 team won the school's first national championship and the 1971 team won the Game of the Century and the second national championship for the team. Devaney finished with a record of 101-20-2 in his 11 seasons. He won 8 conference titles and 2 national championships and named Osborne as his successor.
Tom Osborne
Devaney named Tom Osborne his assistant coach and offensive coordinator for the 1969 season. Together they introduced the I-Formation. Devaney left coaching to become athletic director and named Osborne as his successor. His teams were very consistent and they never won fewer than 9 games a season. It was in the early 1990s that Osborne realized he needed to change his scheme and recruit more speed. He got his first title after defeating Miami in the 1994 season. The 1995 team is considered Osborne's best and the best in college history. After winning his third championship in four years, after the 1997 season, he decided to step down after 25 seasons as head coach. He was not only voted coach of the decade but in the 2007 ESPN Poll that voted his 1995 team the best of all time, he was also voted the greatest college coach of all time.
Polls
Since the United Press International Poll (coaches) joined the Associated Press (sports writers and broadcasters) in 1950 many of the same teams could be seen in the polls from year to year. When the polls had different top ranked teams there would be a split decision and two national champions. This happened 10 times during the same period and the controversy caused by these poll discrepancies would eventually lead many to call for a playoff. (Nebraska and Oklahoma were in the top the most).
Bowls
Postseason bowl games were designed to be a reward for a successful season and a financial boon for the host city and the competing schools. By WW2, 5 bowls were in existence. The number grew to 8 and 10 by the end of the 50s. By 1990 there were 19 bowl games, by 2000 there were 23. After 2010 the number jumped to 35 games. It was decided that teams must have a winning record to be bowl eligible. The major bowls were the Rose, Orange, Sugar, Cotton, and the Fiesta.
BCS
By 1998, the drumbeat for a playoff had become so incessant that the members of six major conferences plus Notre Dame decided to create the Bowl Championship Series. A computer would calculate rankings based on a combination of the original two polls, AP and the newly constructed USA Today/ESPN Coaches Poll, strength of schedule, and won-lost record. The winners of the six conferences would join two at-large teams to play in the major bowls to determine a champion.
4-Team Playoff
In the summer of 2012 all that became moot as the automatic qualifiers were thrown out and a four-team playoff was approved by an NCAA presidential oversight committee. The four teams will be chosen by a selection committee and the two semifinals will be held at current bowl sites either on New Year's Eve or New Year's Day. The championship game site will go to the highest-bidding city and will occur on the first Monday in January that falls at least 6 days following the semifinals.
Penn State Scandal
In November of 2011 assistant coach Jerry Sandusky was indicted on 52 counts of child molestation of underage boys between 1994 and 2009. The charges were bad enough, but it was also alleged that many of the molestations took place on university property and even with the knowledge of university officials. July 23 the NCAA stepped in and imposed the following sanctions on Penn State: five years' probation and four-year postseason ban. They were forced to vacate all wins from 1998-2011—112 wins. This striped the team of their Big Ten titles in 2005 and 2008. It also removed 111 wins from Paterno's record, dropping him from first to 12th on the NCAA's all-time wins list. A 60 million dollar fine was imposed, the proceeds to go toward preventing child abuse. There were also a loss of 40 initial scholarships from 2013 to 2017.
True Womanhood
The idea that women were not only to be confined to the home or private sphere but also should be protected and treated as the more delicate of the sexes. This came to be known as the cult of True Womanhood. The idea was that woman was made form finer clan than mortal sinful man and exposing her to the rough contacts of the male dominated public sphere would do irrevocable damage to society's view of the true woman.
Gibson Girl
In 1890 artist Charles painted a tall, slim, athletic-looking girl that would be forever known as this. He would paint her participating in various sporting events like bicycling, golf, and tennis. Whether knowing it or not, Gibson had created society's ideal woman for the next 30 years. The Gibson Girl was the embodiment of the new woman that emerged from the Victorian cult of true womanhood. This image change helped make athletics more acceptable for the American Woman.
FLapper
By the 1920s the image of the ideal woman had shifted from the Gibson Girl to the flapper. This was a much less stoic, more outgoing person who wore her emotions on her sleeve. The flapper wore her hair short, danced, and even drank.
AAGBBL All American Girls' Baseball Leagu
In 1867, the Dolly Vardens were an African American female baseball team in Philadelphia that were paid to play making them the first professional baseball club in the country. The AAGBBL was started during WW2. Jimmie Foxx was the coach for the all American girls professional girls baseball league (created by Wrigley), Wrigley was the chewing gum owner of the cubs, he started a league for softball but changed it to a baseball league while men were at war.
Title IX
1972 was a watershed year for the movement as Congress passed bother the Equal Rights Amendment to the constitution that guaranteed equal rights for women in all areas of society and the Education Amendments Act with a 37-word section known as this. It stated that if a school is getting financial assistance from the government there can be no segregation between women and men. It got women more involved, got them into more coaching positions, women's sports were becoming more desirable.
WNBA
At age 39, Lieberman became a member of the Phoenix Mercury in the inaugural season of the WNBA. Associated with the male NBA and is the longest-lasting professional female basketball league. Started in 1997 and is still going. Women play in the same venues of the NBA. They have a good marketing and TV contract with NBC.
Ed Stewart
Massillon manager who felt compelled to address his team about the rumors swirling that the game in Canton would be fixed to make sure the Bulldogs won the first game. After the games, he dropped a bombshell to a reporter making a charge of a fix involving Canton coach Blondy Wallace.
Walter East
A player for Massillon who was rumored to be int he fix of the Canton-Massillon game. He was rumored to get 50,000 from gamblers to try and recruit other players in the scheme along with Blondy Wallace. He was immediately released from the team. He denied Stewart's charges but did not deny the fix.
Black Sox
The 1919 Chicago White Sox seemed unstoppable going into the World Series after winning the American League pennant. Just days before the series was to start, those odds began to drop as rumors of a fix began to circulate. The rumors were that a number of Chicago players had been paid by gamblers to deliberately lose the series. History looks back at this period and refers to the players who took part in it as the Black Sox but there is evidence that the entire team was known by that nickname well before any scandal. The rumors were true and the plan was the idea of Arnold Gandil. Gandil recruited five other players to help.
Charles Cominskey
The rumors that Chicago players were being paid by gamblers to lose, the allegations were believable because he was the stingy owner of the White Sox. Due to the reserve clause players were forced to play for his pay or not play at all. At one point, he refused to launder the uniforms and when he finally did he took it out of the players pay.
Arnold Rothstein
Had connections to Arnold Gandil through small time gamblers. He was one of the biggest gamblers in the country from New York who supplied the money for the payoff for the Black Sox.
Buck Weaver
Was involved in the Black Sox scandal, he was a third baseman. The controversy stems from his denial and the fact that he played great during the series.
Shoeless Joe Jackson
Was involved in the Black Sox scandal, he was one of the best hitters in baseball. The controversy stems from his denial and the fact that he played great during the series. He knew about the fix and possible accepted money but there is no evidence.
Kenesaw Mountain Landis
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