BSCC 1005 TEST 4
Terms in this set (80)
Habitat fragmentation can lead to
All of the above are correct. (extinction, genetic drift, speciation)
The ivory-billed woodpecker was rediscovered in 2005 in a swamp in Arkansas after being considered extinct for over 20 years. An important lesson to derive from this episode is that
we should continue to conserve the habitat of a species, even if there is a high probability that the species is extinct.
Which of the following maxims is NOT generally true of well-designed biological reserves?
A reserve that excludes humans is better than a reserve that integrates humans.
is more generally the case that large animals are more vulnerable to habitat destruction than are small animals. Which of the following could possibly be a reason for the opposite effect, wherein small animals might be more vulnerable to habitat destruction than larger animals?
ONLY A(Small animals often have smaller habitat range then larger animals) AND B (Small animals often have more specialized requirements for living than larger animals) ARE GOOD REASONS THAT SMALL ANIMALS MIGHT BE MORE VULNERABLE TO HABITAT DESTRUCTION THAN LARGER ANIMALS
There are a lot of endangered animals in this world, and the numbers are increasing constantly as their habitats are destroyed by global warming and urbanizing humans. Why don't conservative biologists just stick representative animals in zoos so that their numbers can be bolstered and their existence ensured?
There is not enough public interest worldwide to capture and maintain representatives of all the planet's endangered species,Many endangered species live in habitats found in poor countries where there is not enough money to be spent on maintaining endangered animals,All the zoos in the world do not have enough space to hold representatives of all the planet's endangered species,Not all endangered species are able to propagate themselves in captivity, ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE POSSIBLE REASONS
Conservation biology is concerned with the conservation of
species, biodiversity, populations, ecosystems, ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
Disturbances cause a decrease in carrying capacity for all populations in the disturbed habitat. This statement is
incorrect, while a disturbance may lower carrying capacity for some populations, it may increase carrying capacity for others.
The earth has gone through a series of mass extinctions caused by a variety of different factors. The current mass extinction is believed to be the result of
Introduced predators frequently cause more damage to island ecosystems than to mainland ecosystems. Based on your knowledge of extinction and exotic species, which of the following might explain this?
In the absence of native predators, many island animals lose the ability to defend themselves,Islands are typically home to a large number of endemic species that are found nowhere else, Population sizes of island animals are often smaller than those of their mainland counterparts, Introduced predators on islands frequently lack predators themselves, ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE REASONABLE EXPLANATIONS
Which of the following is NOT a major threat to biodiversity?
minimum viable population size
What is the primary reason for targeting "biodiversity hotspots" for conservation?
The number of species threatened far exceeds our capacity to protect them and we should therefore concentrate on areas of highest species diversity.
A species that has a disproportionate effect on the biodiversity of a community is called
a keystone species.
Which of the following makes a species more vulnerable to human-mediated extinction?
The species has a limited geographical range, The species has evolved in the absence of predation and disease, The species is attractive as a human resource, The species has a restricted habitat distribution, ALL OF THE ABOVE MAKE A SPECIES MORE VULNERABLE TO HUMAN-MEDIATED EXTINCTION
When chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) molecules leak into the atmosphere, they rise to the stratosphere, where sunlight knocks a chlorine atom off the CFC molecule. These free chlorine atoms then catalyze the breakdown of
the ozone molecule to the oxygen molecule.
Which of the following is NOT a legitimate value of biodiversity?
feeling calm and connected with nature when sitting in a mountain meadow, using herbicide-free fertilizer because the fish on the bag label reminds you of your environmental responsibility, believing that we as humans are connected to all wild things and that our actions affect wild things, being impressed by the many colors of leaves during autumn, ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE LEGITIMATE VALUES OF BIODIVERSITY
_______________ ecology uses the principles of ecology to bring degraded habitats back to as close to their original natural state as possible.
Based on what you know about extinction, which of the following might explain why habitat fragmentation can pose a severe threat to many species
It can lower population size, It can create habitat edges that increase the vulnerability of those individuals living near the edge, It can create barriers to movement of individuals, ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
Which of the following is NOT a problem in assessing biodiversity?
assessing the number of clearly defined species in a habitat
Which of the following statements is true about the causes of mass extinction?
NOT ANY OF THESE, rate of species reproduction plays a significant role, The age of maturity plays a significant role,The degree of parental care plays a significant role.
The reversibility of a disturbance in an ecosystem is most closely tied to
whether a species went extinct.
When defining terrestrial biomes, which of the following information is most useful?
average temperature and rainfall
Which of the following statements about an organism's niche is NOT true?
It may be occupied by two species.
Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of a niche?
the specific geographical location where an organism lives
If there are 2000 units of biomass among the primary producers of a food chain, how much biomass would be expected among the tertiary consumers in that same food chain?
The chief difference between primary and secondary succession is that
primary succession begins with no life or soil, while secondary succession begins with both.
The 10% rule of energy conversion efficiency
explains why big, fierce animals are so rare, suggests that 90% of what an organism eats is used in cellular respiration or is lost as feces, explains why herbivore biomass must exceed that of carnivores, limits the length of food chains, ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
Spotted Antbirds (Hylophylax naevioides) are capable of catching both small and large insects. When the much larger Ocellated Antbird (Phaenostictus mcleannani) is present, however, Spotted Antbirds eat only small insects. Which of the following statements about the Spotted Antbird is therefore CORRECT?
Its realized niche differs from its fundamental niche.
Which of the following statements about population densities is CORRECT?
Predators typically exist at lower population densities than their prey.
Which of the following is true about an ecosystem?
It includes bacteria and fungi, It includes chemical resources, It contains at least one community, It includes the average temperature of that locality, ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE TRUE ABOUT AN ECOSYSTEM
Eutrophication leads to the death of fish and insects due to
lack of available oxygen.
In a New England forest, different species of warbler birds were discovered that feed on things they find in or below the trees. The different bird species, which are nearly identical in most respects, all share the same niche. Yet they all thrive and reproduce successfully. How is this possible?
They feed on different parts of the same trees.
Animals that have warning coloration similar to another poisonous animal, but themselves are not poisonous, are said to be
The carbon cycle is important biologically because
by plants and phytoplankton remove substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon, carbon forms the framework for organic molecules essential to all organisms, carbon is a component of amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids, carbon is a major constituent of phospholipids, ATP, and other energy-storing molecules, ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
The phosphorus cycle is important biologically because
phosphorus is a major constituent of phospholipids, ATP, and other energy-storing molecules.
All living organisms interact with their environment to obtain the energy necessary for life. Different organisms have different methods of achieving this. Which of the following does NOT correctly identify one of the several methods of energy extraction?
Tertiary consumers are animals, which eat the animals that eat herbivores, Consumers are organisms that obtain their energy and nutrients by eating and digesting other organisms, Producers are organisms that extract their energy from nonliving components of their environment, Decomposers are organisms that obtain their energy and nutrients from the remains and wastes of other organisms, ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
The figure above shows circulating masses of air in which cool air (blue) falls toward the earth's surface and becomes warmer (red). Which of the following is a consequence of this air movement?
the warm air can hold more and more moisture and there is little rainfall in these areas
The figure above shows the distribution of solar energy on the earth. If you could walk from the North Pole towards the equator, you would get hotter. Which of the following statements best explains why the temperatures at the equator are warmer than at the North Pole?
The sun shines most directly on the equator and spreads out over a relatively small area.
The relationship between roots and fungi in mycorrhizae BEST can be described as
In a food web consisting of grass, grasshoppers, sparrows, and hawks, the grasshoppers are
Flooding that temporarily reduces suitable territories is an example of
density-independent population regulation, an abiotic disturbance, BOTH B AND C ARE CORRECT
Disease is spread more quickly between individuals who live in close proximity, such as in a nesting colony of penguins. Disease can be considered a
Life histories are based on
the age at death,the age of reproduction and number of reproductive events, the rate of growth and development, litter size, ALL OF THE ABOVE
often occurs in populations living with limited resources.
Which of the following statements about maximum sustainable yield is incorrect?
The maximum sustainable yield for a population is a useful management guideline for harvesting plant products such as timber, but is not helpful for managing animal populations.
Which of the following is NOT true about a population?
Individuals within a population undergo genetic change.
Which of the following scenarios is MOST likely to result in oscillations of two populations together?
One population is the sole predator of another population.
Which of the following characteristics is associated with a species whose life history strategy has a greater longevity and survival rate?
Their rate of population growth is low.
The graph above shows the population size at which a population can most effectively be utilized for natural resources. Which of the following is an assumption about population growth implicit in this figure?
Carrying capacity does not change over time.
Which of the following assumptions of logistic growth is NOT CORRECT for most populations?
NOT ANY OF THESE, Every individual has an equal effect on the population and resources, Immigration and emigration rates are zero for the population,Every individual has its effect on the population and resources beginning at birth, Both birth and death rates remain continuous
In general, there is a positive correlation between body size and generation time. This statement is
true; larger animals tend to have a longer generation time.
Exponential growth can continue indefinitely only if
None of the above is correct; exponential growth cannot continue indefinitely.
When does the growth rate of a population equal zero?
when deaths equal births
During the period from 25,000 to 10,000 years ago, when people were gatherer-hunters, the rate of population increase was slow; but from 10,000 to 5,000 years ago there was a dramatic increase in growth rate. Which of these factors is thought NOT to have contributed to this increase?
a decreased vulnerability to infectious disease in agricultural communities
Why is ecology studied at the population level or higher?
Most ecological process cannot be observed or studied at the individual level.
Studies of human demography have revealed that
countries with higher levels of education and employment have low birth rates.
Those species whose risk of death is low, would also be expected to
age more slowly.
Which of the following BEST describes a survivorship curve?
A survivorship curve reflects the relationship of survival rate with age.
Dr. David Reznick has studied life history evolution in guppies that live in streams in Trinidad. Guppies are found in two different types of habitat
sites where predation is high, and sites where predation is low. Which of the following life history characteristics would you expect to evolve in a guppy population living in a high-predation site?: increased egg size
Which one of the following characteristics is TRUE about a type I species, such as the giant tortoise?NOT ANY OF THESE, The likelihood of dying at any age is about the same throughout their lifespan, Offspring are likely to never actually meet their parents,Mating is frequent, producing large numbers of offspring, They can be described as a species whose motto is "live fast, die young."
During exponential growth, the per capita rate of increase is
Which of the following statements about ferns is NOT true?
Their seeds are dispersed via the wind.
The phrase "double fertilization" in angiosperms is best described by which of the choices below?
Each pollen grain contains two sperm cells and one leads to the fertilization that produces the embryo and the other leads to the fertilization that produces the endosperm.
The process illustrated in step 3, above, is called
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic that all fungi share?
The spores of fungi have flagella.
The evolution of seeds corresponded with the evolution of
Angiosperms and gymnosperms differ from each other in that
angiosperms tend to rely on animal pollinators while gymnosperms tend to rely on wind pollination.
What is the one most obvious difference between the gymnosperms and angiosperms?
The gymnosperms don't form flowers while the angiosperms do.
The sperm cells in a pollen grain can serve different purposes. Which of the following could NOT happen to a sperm cell in nature?
A sperm cell divides to form a structure that is stored for food.
Mosses and ferns differ in their reproductive strategies from gymnosperms and angiosperms in which of the following ways?
Mosses and ferns rely upon liquid water for fertilization whereas the angiosperms and gymnosperms do not need liquid water for fertilization.
In the symbiotic relationship that occurs when fungi form lichen, what do the two partners receive from each?
The fungi contribute a protective environment while the algae or cyanobacteria contributes the ability to photosynthesize.
The photosynthetic pigments in angiosperms are likely to be most closely related to those in
In terms of their adaptation to living on land, how are reptiles similar to the seed plants?
BOTH C (Seed plants and reptiles have developed structures such as cuticles and impermeable skin in order to minimize desiccation) AND D (Reptiles and plants have developed structures which house and protect their gametes from the surrounding environment) ARE CORRECT
As the course of evolution has proceeded in plants, what is the overall trend in the relationship of the diploid stage and the haploid stage?
The haploid stage has been reduced in size while the diploid stage has become more prominent.
Based on the fact that a watermelon contains many seeds, what can be inferred about a normal flower of a watermelon plant?
It contains a large number of ovules.
Which aspect of the angiosperm life cycle and morphology, depicted above, is NOT unique to angiosperms?
Which of the following would be the BEST way to determine whether the relationship between the algae and the fungi that constitutes a lichen is a mutualistic or parasitic relationship?
Devise an experiment to determine whether either of the two component species could survive alone; if the alga could survive alone and the fungi couldn't, then this is evidence that the fungi is parasitic on the algae.
Branches are to a tree as _______ are to a __________.
The graph above shows data from research investigating the invasive velvetleaf plant. Researchers evaluated offspring survival of parents grown with and without symbiotic root fungi.What can you conclude from this graph?
Mycorrhizal fungi are beneficial to their hosts.
Which of the following correctly identifies the rank of the major groups of plants, based upon how many species they contain, from most to fewest?
flowering plants; ferns; mosses; conifers
Which of the following statements about ferns is FALSE?
ALL ARE TRUE Ferns can grow taller than mosses because of their vascular system, Sporangia produce haploid cells, Gametes are produced by the prothallus,The fronds or leaves of ferns have diploid cells.
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