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Ultimate AP Biology Vocabulary Review
A review of all of the Campbell 7th Edition terms for the new 2013 AP Biology Curriculum
Terms in this set (315)
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
Water molecules sticking to other surfaces.
Something dissolved in a solution.
Dissolving agent of a solution.
Carbohydrate component of plant cell walls.
Storage polysaccharide of plants.
Extremely branched polymer of glucose.
Polysaccharide found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls.
Bonds that connect amino acids.
Chain of amino acids.
Either an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet.
Results from interactions between side chains.
Results from two or more polypeptide subunits.
Condensation reaction where molecules are connected by loss of a water molecule.
Reaction where water split into two hydrogens and one oxygen; this breaks a polymer.
A population can change over time if individuals with more fit traits leave more offspring than less fit individuals.
An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms' ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments.
Humans modifying species for desired traits through selective breeding.
decent with modification
Darwin's way of referring to evolution.
Individuals whose inherited traits confer an advantage have a better chance of surviving in a given environment and will leave more offspring.
Similarity resulting from common ancestry.
Are little or no importance to organism, but remain from an ancestor.
Geographic distribution of species.
Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area.
All the genes in a given population at a given time.
Proportion of an allele in a gene pool.
Changes in the nucleotide sequence in DNA.
Change in allele frequencies due to chance.
When a population has been dramatically reduced, and the gene pool is no longer reflective of the original population's.
When a small number of individuals colonize a new area; the new gene pool is not reflective of original population.
When a population gains or loses alleles., movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population.
Heritable variations in a population.
Shift toward a favorable variation.
Shift toward the extremes.
Shift that favors the mean.
Maintains recessive alleles in a population, ex. carriers for sickle cell anemia are resistant to malaria
Natural selection for mating success.
Origin of new species and the source of biological diversity.
Barriers that impede members of two different species fro producing fertile offspring.
Barriers that impede mating or hinder fertilization.
When two species encounter each other only rarely.
When two species breed at different times of day, season, or years.
Incompatible courtship rituals, pheromones, or bird songs.
Morphological differences prevent fertilization.
When sperm can't fertilize the eggs.
Barriers that prevent the hybrid zygote from becoming a fertile adult.
reduced hybrid viability
When the genes of different species interact and impair hybrid development.
reduced hybrid fertility
Sterile hybrids due to uneven chromosome number.
Hybrid is fertile, but when they breed the next generation is sterile.
When a population is divided; leads to speciation.
Speciation without a divided population.
In plants, the result of an extra set of chromosomes during cell division.
Evolution of many new species from a common ancestor as a result of introduction to new environments.
Class of homeotic genes. Changes in these genes can have a profound impact on body plan.
Branching diagrams that depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships.
Aggregates of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane.
Ancestors of mitochondria and plastids was prokaryotes thatcame to live in a host cell.
Cell wall of prokaryotes, but NOT ARCHAEA. Made of a sugar polymer and polypeptide.
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
Movement toward or away from a stimulus.
Small rings of DNA found naturally in some bacterial cells in addition to the main bacterial chromosome. Can contain genes for antibiotic resistance, or other "contingency" functions.
Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls lacking peptidoglycan. Like eukaryotes, DNA contains histone proteins.
All species that inhabit an area.
The size of the population within a particular unit of space.
New individuals moving into population. Increases population size.
Movement out of population. Decreases population size.
Random spacing of individuals of the same species within an area.
The most common pattern of dispersion; individuals aggregated in patches.
The pattern in which individuals are equally spaced throughout a habitat.
Defense of a space against encroachment by other individuals.
Population increase under ideal conditions, when r > 0. Forms a J-shaped curve.
When limiting factors restrict size of population to the carrying capacity of the environment. Forms an S-shaped curve.
carrying capacity (K)
Maximum population size that a particular environment can support.
Species compete for a limiting resource. (-/-)
Strong competition can lead to local elimination of one of the species.
Sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources; an organism's "role".
Differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist.
Interspecific interaction that benefits both species. (+/+)
Interaction between species that benefits one but neither helps or harms the other. (+/0)
Reciprocal evolutionary adaptations of two interacting species.
Not necessarily abundant, but exert a strong control on community structure due to a pivotal ecological role.
Carnivore that eats herbivores.
Carnivore that eats carnivores.
Carnivore that eats tertiary consumers.
Species generally introduced by humans, that take hold outside of their native range.
Succession that begins in a virtually lifeless area.
The first species that colonize new area, such as lichen and mosses.
Succession when an existing community has been cleared, but soil left intact.
Evaporation of water from soil plus transpiration from plants. Correlates with species richness.
Consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact.
Obtain energy from detritus.
Only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up.
The soluble portion of the cytoplasm, which includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not the organelles covered with membranes.
Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.
The region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
Double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus.
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins.
Small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins.
A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
Small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell.
Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells).
A network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm; covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins.
Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.
A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.
A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
Membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.
Strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria.
When a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Due to entropy.
The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion. No cell energy required.
When a cell gets materials or excretes them by using its own energy, usually through ATP; going against a concentration gradient.
Describes a solution that has a greater concentration of total solute.
Describes a solution that has a lesser concentration of total solute.
Describes solutions that have an equal concentration of total solutes.
The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.
This measurement has a maximum value of 0; it decreases as the concentration of a solute increases.
This measurement has a minimum value of 0 (when the solution is open to the environment); it increases as pressure increases.
A property of a plasma membrane that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
A series of molecular changes that converts a signal on a target cell's surface to a specific response inside the cell.
A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that has a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel.
A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that facilitates the passage of water through channel proteins.
A difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance.
The control of water balance.
Passive diffusion that is aided by transport proteins, but that does not require cellular energy.
The voltage of a plasma membrane.
A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.
An electrogenic pump that works largely with H+ ions.
Occurs when a cell secretes certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
Occurs when a cell takes in biological molecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
Any molecule that bonds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travels in body fluids, and act on specific target cells.
Amoeboid cells that roam connective tissue and engulf foreign particles and debris of dead cells.
Animals that are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism.
Animals that gain heat mostly from external sources.
"Steady state" or "constant internal milieu".
A type of regulation that responds to a change in conditions by initiating responses that will counteract the change. Maintains a steady state.
A type of regulation that responds to a change in conditions by initiating responses that will amplify the change. Takes organism away from a steady state.
Process of maintaining an internal temperature within a tolerable range.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Composed of a sugar ribose, nitrogenous base adenine, and a chain of three phosphate groups bonded to it.
The metabolic process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule.
A chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
A catalytic protein.
The amount of energy needed to push the reactants over an energy barrier.
When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:
A pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme.
Reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.
Impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme (other than the active site).
When oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
When there is a transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another.
Breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate.
citric acid cycle
Completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide.
When energy is released at each step of the chain is stored in a form the mitochondrion can use to make ATP.
The enzyme that make ATP from ADPand inorganic phosphate.
Occurs by fermentation, which generate ATP solely by substrate-level phosphorylation.
Protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen.
Innate response with the purpose of containing a site of damage, localizing the response, eliminating the invader and restore tissue function.
Chemical stored in mast cells that triggers dilation and increased permeability of capillaries leading to inflammation
Any foreign molecule that is specifically recognized by lymphocytes and elicits an immune response.
B lymphocytes (B cells)
Lymphocyte that matures in the bone marrow and secretes antibodies.
T lymphocytes (T cells)
Lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and acts directly against antigens in cell-mediated immune responses.
General term for lymphocytes that are responsible for immunological memory and protective immunity.
primary immune response
Immune response the first time the body is exposed to a particular antigen. Does not peak until 10-17 days after exposure.
secondary immune response
Immune response after the body has already been exposed to a specific antigen. Response is faster, of greater magnitude, and more prolonged.
humoral immune response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.
cell-mediated immune response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells.
helper T cells
Activate macrophages, B cells and T cells.
A form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens.
Immunity conferred by transferring antibodies from an individual who is immune to a pathogen to another individual.
cytotoxic T cells or "killer T cells"
T cells that directly attack infecting organisms; these cells attack antigen labeled foreign or host tissue.
The secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect.
The system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity.
Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Signal released from a cell has an effect on neighboring cells.
Hormone produced by the pancreas that helps to decrease blood sugar.
Cell specialization in structure and function.
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
Contains most of a neuron's organelles and its nucleus.
Highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons.
Long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron.
The junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle.
A bulb at the end of an axon in which neurotransmitter molecules are stored and released.
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.
The transmitting neuron in a synapse.
The neuron, muscle, or gland cell that receives the signal from a neuron.
The voltage across a cell's plasma membrane.
The process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive.
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
A layer of electrical insulation that surrounds the axon.
fixed action patterns (FAP)
A sequence of unlearned behavioral acts that is unchangeable and usually carried to completion.
Includes both learning and innate components, generally irreversible.
A behavior that is developmentally fixed.
A simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimuli.
Automatic, oriented movement toward or away from some stimuli.
Relatively long-distance movement of individuals, usually on a seasonal basis.
A loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information.
Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself.
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size.
Any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells.
The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis.
Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.
Cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes.
Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases.
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
Regulatory proteins that ensure that the events of cell division occur in the proper sequence and at the correct rate.
One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color.
One parent produces a genetically identical offspring by mitosis.
Chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual.
X-shaped regions where crossing over occurred.
Nonsister chromatids exchanging DNA segments.
Has two sets of chromosomes.
Union of gametes.
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm that unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Units of heredity made up of DNA.
One set of chromosomes.
Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance and same genes.
The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes.
Fertilized egg. Carries one set of chromosomes from each parent.
The name for the true-breeding parents.
The hybrid offspring of true-breeding parents.
After the self-pollenization of the F1 generation, this is produced.
The Law of Segregation
Two alleles separate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes because they are on on homologous chromosomes.
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
An organism having a pair of identical alleles for a character, either dominant or recessive.
An organism's traits.
An organism's genetic makeup.
To determine the probability, we multiply the probability of one event by the probability of another.
Considering mutually exclusive events, the probability of both occurring is the sum of the probabilities of each event.
When the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.
When which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote.
Creates a blended phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other.
An additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character.
A genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems.
Genetic disorder in which red blood cells have abnormal hemoglobin molecules and take on an abnormal shape.
Genetic disorder that causes progressive deterioration of brain cells. caused by a dominant allele. symptoms do not appear until about the age of 30.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
An X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.
Genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses.
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.
A type of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed.
A change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed.
Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.
A congenital disorder caused by having an extra Chromosome 21.
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork.
The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction.
Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.
An enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands.
Synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
Carries genetic message from the DNA to he protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell.
The synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA.
Complex particles that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains.
The modification of mRNA before it leaves the nucleus that is unique to eukaryotes.
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing mRNA.
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
Coding segments of eukaryotic DNA.
mRNA base triplets.
Collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription.
Process by which the introns are removed from RNA transcripts and the remaining exons are joined together.
Noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding sequences.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
Interpreter of a series of codons along a mRNA molecule.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA molecules that construct ribosomal subunits.
chemical changes in just one base pair of a gene
Mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in improper grouping of nucleotides into codons.
The protein shell that encloses a viral genome. It may be rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more complex in shape.
A phage replication cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host.
A type of viral (phage) replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by lysis (and death) of the host cell.
A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions.
Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein.
The addition of methyl groups to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as a long-term control of gene expression.
small single stranded RNA molecules that bind to mRNA and can degrade mRNA or block its translation.
A degradative enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium.
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain.
In proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. In DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides.
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
Green pigment located within the chloroplasts.
Microscopic pores in the leaf which lets CO2 in and O2 out. Also where water is lost.
Flattened membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions take place.
Part of photosynthesis that involves light. ATP and NADPH are produced. Takes place on the thylakoid membrane.
The initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds.
Carbon fixation process in photosynthesis. Forms sugar and other organic compounds.
The most abundant protein on earth. Performs Carbon Fixation in the Calvin Cycle.
In angiosperms, a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization. Provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.
Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light.
Programmed cell death.
A physiological response to photoperiod, the relative lengths of night and day. An example of photoperiodism is flowering.
A plant that flowers only when the light period is shorter than a critical length. Usually fall or winter.
A plant that flowers only when the light period is longer than a critical length. Usually spring or early summer.
Viruses that reproduce only by the lytic cycle.
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