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ORELA ESOL practice
Terms in this set (65)
Behaviorist Model: Individuals learn language as a direct response to stimuli.
Nativist Model - we are born with a universal grammar wired into the brain.
Language Acquisition Device
Enables the acquisition of the linguistic principles of other languages.
Zone of Proximal development - describes the difference between what a person knows and what he could know if given some help (scaffolding)
Brofenbrenner-microsystem, macrosystem, exosystem, mesosystem
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
0 - 2 years - child physically handles objects
2-7 years - child improves physically and begins to think conceptually
7-11 years - child develops logical thinking skills
(11 - 15 years) child begins to think abstractly and can develop mental hypotheses.
child uses known word to describe a new object/concept until he is corrected
child learns to correct his own errors of linguistic identification.
child uses the right word to describe the object.
Stephen Krashen - second language acquisition: individuals are given information slightly above their ability level in a given language. Learner needs to understand the majority of what he is hearing.
When an individual learns rules for grammar, he is able to monitor consciously the discourse he hears in the future. Individuals use grammatical rules to monitor their speech to a greater or lesser degree.
Natural Order Hypothesis
The acquisition of a second language will follow predictable patterns. Avoid grammatical instruction in favor of immersion and interactive performance.
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Lots of emotional factors contribute to the acquisition of a second language. Used to stress the importance of establishing a positive and welcoming environment in the bilingual classroom.
Version of a language that is used by a particular group of people.
General term used to describe any nonstandard form of a language.
"word picture" Students see words as shapes and will be able to identify familiar words by sight.
Students begin to notice that words that sound alike often have a similar appearance as well. Students are receptive to instruction about the reasons for sound differences. Good time to focus on word rhyming, most intense period of phonics development
Students are able to sound out familiar and unfamiliar words. Know letter sounds and read most common words automatically. At this point students are most able to enjoy and obtain knowledge from reading.
The way a language sounds
System by which words are constructed out of letters.
The smallest distinguishable unit of sound that can hold meaning.
The smallest meaningful unit of a morphological system.
The basic structure of the sentences. Order of words
Offers recommendations for proper syntax, set of rules that must be followed in order to attain a certain standard of acceptable expression
Study of sounds made during human speech, have distinct properties with respect to their production, audition, and perception.
Meanings of words
the set of judgments and references that accompany a word.
The system by which language is used in social interactions.
The understanding that words are made up of individual speech sounds
Any speech sounds that can be distinguished from one another.
Depends on the alphabetic principle, which is that letters of other characters represents sounds.
A combination of two or more consonants into a single sound.
a single but shifting sound made by the combination of two or more vowels. oi, oy
A group of two or more letters that create a sound different from the individual sounds of the letters. sh, ph, ch, wh
The sound that initiates a syllable
The vowel and any consonants after the vowel
Admissions, Review, and Dismissal; IEP is created.
Individuals with Disabilities Act
Lau vs. Nichols (U.S. Supreme Court, 1974)
School districts must provide ELL students the tools necessary to understand instruction.
Traditional ESL programs
ESL program that prioritizes social language skills, teach streamlined, socially necessary vocabulary and help students communicate their basic needs.
Content-Based ESL curriculum - more deeply grounded in the same content that non-ESL students receive in order to prepare them for mainstreaming.
Canale and Swain
Theory that determines that communicative competence consists of both organizational competence and pragmatic competence and is currently the objective of many language education programs.
4 elements of communicative competence
Canale and Swain -
1. Competence in grammar - mastery of the rules of language
2. sociolinguistics - understanding what is appropriate
3. discourse - ability to organize messages into a coherent and cohesive whole
4. communication strategies - use of communication strategies in ways that are appropriate.
6 tasks of phonemic awareness
1. sound matching
2. sound isolation
3. sound blending
4. sound substitution
5. sound deletion
6. sound segmentation
Specially designed academic instruction in English, students must have at least intermediate fluency in English.
Sheltered Instruction vs. ESL
Sheltered Instruction: focus is mastery of the content area
ESL: Focus is on development of English Skills
sink or swim.
Transitional ESL education
Students receive content area instruction in both their primary and secondary language according to their proficiency.
Primary Language instruction
content-area material is covered in the native language of the students. Over time English is increased....overall goal is to have every content area in English.
English Language Development
Graduated program of improvement in English language proficiency. Provide a large amount of practice time and ungraded opportunities for students to apply their knowledge of english in content areas.
Marie M. Clay
founder of Reading Recovery Movement, which is an effective method of accelerating the progress of struggling readers.
Review, relate, anticipate technique.
Lau vs. Nichols
Chinese-American students in San Francisco claimed that they were receiving an inferior education because of limited English Proficiency. Language had to be considered when teaching students.
Bilingual Education Act of 1968
Local school districts were provided with federal money for ELL programs for students whose primary language was Spanish. School would be guaranteed federal funds for at least 5 years.
Castaneda vs. Pickard
1981, 3 criteria were established so that bilingual programs aligned with the Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974.
1. Based on sound education theory
2. Implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space
3. Must prove to be effective at overcoming linguistic barriers
No Child Left Behind Act 2002, did away with native language programs, declared that students must be tested in English annually. Designing programs for ELL students is left up to individual school districts.
Any form of bilingual education that places English above the students' first language.
Programs that seek to improve skills in both the first language and English, use the 2 languages as reinforcements for one another.
Norm referenced Assessment
A student's score is compared to that of his peers, often presented as a percentile
These assessment contribute more generally to the teacher's understanding of the students' strengths and weaknesses. Students are not graded, includes any observation that the teacher makes.
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