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Terms in this set (10)
NPD1, a derivative of DHA
inhibits oxidative stress mediated proinflammatory gene induction and apoptosis → promotes cell survival → improvement of Alzheimer's disease
How can omega 3s affect neural function (and therefore lead to an improvement of alzheimer's disease)?
Omega3 FA can affect synaptic function and cognitive abilities by providing more fluidity within our plasma membrane and at synaptic regions. This notion allows for protective effects of neurodegenerative diseases.
How can exercise affect neural function (and therefore lead to an improvement of alzheimer's disease)?
-In response to exercise or diet, IGF1 can be produced in the liver and in skeletal muscle as well as in the brain, so it can convey peripheral messages to the brain in the context of diet and exercise
-BDNF and IGF1 acting at presynaptic and
postsynaptic receptors can activate signaling
systems which facilitate synaptic transmission and
support longterm potentiation that is associated
with learning and memory
How can supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty acids prevent or reverse progression to an insulin resistant state?
EPA and DHA (both omega 3 fatty acids) have protective effects against high fat diet induced insulin resistance and work by reversing the HFDI activation of PI3 Kinase activity
Another way that supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty acids can prevent or reverse progression to an insulin resistant state?
they can act as PPAR(gamma) agonists, reversing the increased Fatty acid storage and resulting insulin resistance that PPAR gammas cause
Two mechanisms by which your age influences how diet modifies gene expression.
1. Dynamic changes at enhancers during developmental progression. At early stages of development, some enhancer elements are covered by a condensed nucleosomal array that prevents access to TF binding sites
-Expression of a pioneer factor at a particular stage in development can initiate chromatin remodeling, and prime the enhancer for future activation
-At later stages, the pioneer factor can be maintained or replaced by a different factor
2. Folic acid
-If there is not sufficient folic acid, which is the synthetic form of folate, this could potentially lead to DNA instability. This occurs when there are more Us (uracil) than Ts (thymine) in the DNA which leads to greater instability. This instability thus leads to more DNA damage during embryogenesis or in times of growth spurts where cellular proliferation is essential for growth and survival
-Specifically during the 1st trimester where folic acid can be limited or deficient, this could lead to potential birth defects such as neural tube defects.
why is the headline 'Sunshine vitamin' may ward off breast
cancer' not especially surprising to scientists?
cancer cells lack differentiation and have rapid cell growth. Vitamin D has long been known to induce cell differentiation and inhibit proliferation, of which is usually uncontrolled in cancer cells and tumors.
-also, VD3 negatively controls expression of cyclin D1, a cell cycle regulator which is frequently overexpressed in tumors
Cultures with a diet high in fish have lower incidences of cancer - why might this be the case?
Many fish are rich with omega-3 fatty acids, which serve as a substrate for the COX-2 enzyme, resulting in higher levels of anti-inflammatory series 3 prostaglandins.
Omega-3 fatty acids and their metabolites serve as substrates for the PPAR class II transcription factors, and modulate the expression of genes involved in cancer progression, such as PTEN and NF-kB.
how can omega - 3 PUFAs modulate cancer development and progression.
-reduce cancer promoting inflammation by serving as substrates for the COX2 enzyme, resulting in
increased prostaglandin 3 levels.
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