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Columbian exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Encomienda system
A system whereby the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians; it was a disguised form of slavery.
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish Explorer who discovered and named Florida while searching for the "Fountain of Youth"
Roanoke
"The Lost Colony" 1586
Joint stock companies
Ancestors of the modern corporation, in which stockholders shared the risks and profits for single ventures or on a permanent basis. Some of the larger companies managed to get royal charters that entitled them to monopolies in certain areas and even governmental powers in their outposts.
Juan de Sepulveda
a humanist scholar that argues that history has shown that the Spaniards are a superior civilization and they have a right to rule the natives and if they resist then they should be crushed brutally. Conquest, Colinization, and Evangilize.
Bartolome de las casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation.
middle passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
First Africans brought to America
1619
Headright system
Encouraged importation of servants- gave 50 acres of land per servant to master
Beaver wars
Wars that resulted from furious trading and hunting of Beaver pelts by the Dutch, the French, and the New Netherlands.
Wool Act
1699
All wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain, protected Britain at colonies' expense
Molasses Act
1733
A British law that imposed a tax on sugar, molasses, and rum imported from non-British colonies into North American colonies.The least successful of the Navigation Acts, since it was avoided by smuggling.
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
Pueblo Revolt
1680, revolt of indigenous laborers led by shaman named Pope'. killed colonists and priests and got Spanish out of modern-day New Mexico for 12 years.
Resulted in spanish accommodation with some aspects of Indian culture
Casta System
Was a social hierarchy based on how European you were. Wealth, education, and physical appearance helped determine how an individual might be viewed. peninsulares, creoles, indios, negroes. mestizo and mulatt
Metis
a half-breed of white and Indian parentage
House of Burgesses
1619 - Virginia- The first legislative body in colonial America.
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. Set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Maryland Toleration Act
Maryland - guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but only christains
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Navigation Acts
1651 laws that required among other things that all goods to and from the colonies be transported on British ships
Salutary Neglect
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
Bacon's rebellion
1676- A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established. More about thought and less about ritual
George Whitefield
(1739) Stressed that God was all powerful and would save only those who openly professed faith in Christ Jesus. Taught that with sincere faith, ordinary people could understand scripture without ministers--> New Light
Jonathan Edwards
A Congregationalist preacher of the Great Awakening who spoke of the fiery depths of hell.
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
John Locke
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Pequot War
1637-The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
Sir William Berkeley
Governor appointed by Charles I. Very popular, organized force that put down 1644 indian uprising
Became virtual dictator
John Winthrop
First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. "City on a hill"
Glorious Revolution
1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England
Roger Williams
Salem Bay. Separation of church and state. Founded Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson
Taught Antinominanism- faith and god's grace
Pontiac's Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, Opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
Stamp Act
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Committees of Correspondence
A network of communicaiton set up in Massachusetts and Virginia to inform other colonies of ways that Britain threatened colonial rights
Intolerable Acts
passed by Parliament in 1774 in reaction to the Boston Tea Party. Passed series of measures including shutting down Boston Harbor and the Quartering Act
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, --> nullification
Shay's Rebellion
A 1787 rebellion - attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
Northwest Ordinance
Established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union.
Jay's Treaty
1794- British and us agreed- British trade w/ Americans and the british leave northwest territory
Pinckney's Treaty
1795 treaty with Spain allowing U.S. commercial use of the Mississippi River and other territory
republican motherhood
called on white women to maintain and teach republican values within the family and granted women a new importance in American political culture
Sugar Act
1764- tax on sugar -> anger
Declaratory act
(1766) Stated that the British Parliament had the same power to tax in the colonies as it did in Great Britain. Parliament emphasized its authority to make binding laws on the American colonies.
Boston Massacre
1770, street clash between townspeople and Irish soldiers ordered to guard British custom houses.
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
First Continental Congress
1774; response to Intolerable Acts; 55 men from 12 colonies meet on Philadelphia; called for complete halt in trade with Britain; important step towards independence.
Second Continental Congress
1775 managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting
Common Sense
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Battle of Saratoga
American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.
Treaty of Alliance
1778- A defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised military support in case of attack by British forces indefinitely into the future.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris
(1783) peace agreement that officially ended the revolutionary war and established Britian's formal recognition of the US
Iroquois Confederation
The league of Indian tribes in the Northeast that fought with the English in the French-Indian War and supported the Loyalists in the America Revolution.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Constitutional Convention
A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution
Great Compromise
A compromise that proposed two houses of Congress; one where a state's population would determine representation and another where all states were represented equally. Proposed by Roger Sherman
Federalist Papers
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law that established the federal court system and the number of Supreme Court justices and that provided for the appeal of certain state court decisions to the federal courts
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution). Created by James Madison
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Toussaint Louverture
Haitian patriot and leader of the Haitian Revolution slave rebellion
Latin American Wars of Independence
freed Mexico, Mesoamerica, South American from Spain and Portugal, much of Latin America came under sway of U.S. Simon Bolivar
Proclamation of Neutrality
A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France.
XYZ Affair
A 1797 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats
Washington's Farewell Address
1796- 1) Do not get involved in foreign affairs 2) Do not make permanent alliances 3) Do not form political parties 4) Avoid sectionalism
Democratic Republican Party
???
Hamilton's Financial plan
Economic policy to favor wealthier groups. 1) Create a national debt. 2)High protective tariff. 3) National bank. 4) Enacted whiskey tax.
First Bank of the United States
Created in 1791 by Alexander Hamilton; was chartered for 20 years; was to have $10mil, 1/5 of which was to be owned by the federal government.
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798 Act that criminalized speech that was derisive to the government. Also made it harder for immigrants
Pennsylvania Gradual Emancipation law
Law saying, if born after 1780, then once slaves are 28 they are free, but it born before 1780, they are a slave for life.
Treaty of Greenville
This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio.
Era of Good feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Midnight judges
judges appointed to Supreme Court by Adams in the last days of his presidency to force them upon Jefferson, Marshall among those appointed
John Marshall
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
Marbury v. Madison
1803- This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Judicial Review
Authority given the courts to review constitutionality of acts by the executive/state/legislature
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) the Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over the state government.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824) U.S. Supreme Court decision reinforcing the "commerce clause'' (the federal government's right to regulate interstate commerce)
Embargo Act
1807 (TJ) , The U.S. tried to hurt Britain and France by cutting off the supplies they needed from America because it banned all the U.S.'s foreign trade.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Panic of 1837
Economic downturn caused by loose lending practices of state banks' and overspeculation.
Slave Codes
Laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.
Calhoun's Speech in the US Senate 1837
Slavery was "positive good" bc white supremacy and paternalism
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Charles Finney
A famous 1800's revival preacher of Second Great Awakening
Seneca Falls Convention
(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A founder and leader of the American woman suffrage movement from 1848, and the Seneca Falls Conference, until her death in 1902
Dorothea Dix
Activist who helped improve conditions of mental patients
Horace Mann
(AJ) , late 1830s, MA, United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
American Colonization Society
Group focused on transporting blacks back to Africa; Liberia was founded in 1822 (the capital was Monrovia); 15,000 blacks went.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Sojourner Truth
(c.1797-1883) American evangelist and reformer, she was born an enslaved African but was later freed and became a speaker for abolition and women's suffrage
Liberty Party
Political party that opposed the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
Elijah Lovejoy
American Presbyterian minister, journalist, and news paper editor who was murdered by a mob for his abolitionist views
Frederick Douglass
A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
Transcendentalism
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Richard Allen
African-American preacher who helped start the Free African Society
David Walker
A free African American who urged blacks to take their freedom by force
Samuel Slater
(1768-1835) English industrialist who brought a design for a textile mill to America, he is considered the founder of the American cotton industry.
Lowell System
A method of factory work that was based on water-powered textile mills that employed young unmarried women from local farms. The system included a loom that could both spin thread and weave cloth in the same mill
American System
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
National Road
A federally funded road, stretching from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois
Cult of Domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
National Trades' Union
the first national association of trade unions, formed in 1834
Second Bank of the United States
(AJ) , chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
Destroyed in 1833
Tariff of 1816
proposed by Madison, a protective tariff, taxed imports in order to increase the price of foreign goods and thereby limit their price advantage. Northeasterners welcomed this, but Southerns and Westerns were reluctant.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
John Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law,. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south.
Daniel Webster
A leading attorney who argued many famous cases in the Supreme Court. Congressman from New Hampshire and senator representing Massachusetts.
Henry Clay
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850
Louisiana Purchase
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
War Hawks
..., Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
War of 1812
..., A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Adams-Onis Treaty
(1819) Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory
Monroe Doctrine
(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Annexation of Texas
Texas decides to secede from Mexico and attempts to declare its independence which eventually leads to our adoption of the land as a state although it was feared that it would cause conflict with mexico leading to war. Southern states in support of this as Texas brought slaves with it meaning it would increase agricultural profits
Oregon Treaty
Negotiation of the border between Oregon and Canada; Americans wanted it at 54º40' (slogan became "Fifty-four forty or fight!"); eventually was put at the 49th parallel
Manifest Destiny
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
Mexican-American War
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory. Due to annexation of Texas. US got Texas and California
Mexican Cession
1848. Awarded after the Mexican American war. U.S. paid $15 million for 525,000 square miles.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largely viewed as traitorous to the country and led to the destruction of the Federalist party
Nullification Crisis
1832-33 was over the tariff policy of the Fed. Gov't, during Jackson's presidency which prompted South Carolina to threaten the use of NULLIFICATION, possible secession and Andrew Jackson's determination to end with military force.
Indian Removal Act
(1830) Signed by President Andrew Jackson, the law permitted the negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indians' lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma.
Black Hawk
A Sauk leader who refused to leave his native Indian land in Illinois-> war -> US won
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Trail of Tears
A forced journey for the Civilized Tribes to reservations deeper in the West.
Seminole Wars
Indian resistance -Seminole Indians refused to leave their land. 1814-1819, 1835-1842
Tallmadge Amendment
Proposed slave ban in Missouri Territory, called for emancipation of children born to slave parents; bill was defeated.
Missouri Compromise
1819 Decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Gadsden Purchase
1853 purchase by the United States of southwestern lands from Mexico
Homestead Act
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Sand Creek Massacre
1864 attack in which as many as 200 Cheyenne were killed by the Colorado militia
Matthew Perry
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus bringing western influence to Japan while showing American might.
Nativism
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Know Nothing Party
Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
(Harriet Beecher) Stowe
Harper's Ferry
1859, Virginia, John Brown raids the Federal arsenal to arm slaves
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Black Codes
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Wilmont Proviso
Would ban slavery in any territory acquired by mexico
Compromise of 1850
(MF) by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
Fugitive Slave Law
1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. Aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that livig in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitional
Freeport Doctrine
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
During the race to become Senator Lincoln asked to have multiple debates with Douglas. Certain topics of these debates were slavery, how to deal with slavery, and where slavery should be allowed. Although Lincoln lost the election to Douglas, he was known throughout the country because of the debates.
Abraham Lincoln.
Lol. Abe :)
Crittenden Compromise
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
Southern Secession
South Carolina secedes on December 20, 1860, after that the 6 southern most states also secede which were Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Louisiana. Became the Confederate states of America in Feb 1861, Jefferson Davis being the president. US President Buchanan claimed that he could not do anything about the Southern secession, was really just waiting out until his term would end
Confederate States of America
a republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States
Fort Sumter
April 12, 1861. Confederacy attacked to start civil war
Gettysburg
(AL) 1863 (meade and lee), July 1-3, 1863, turning point in war, Union victory, most deadly battle
March to the Sea
Sherman's march to Savannah which cut off confederate supplies received by the sea
Appomattox Court House
Famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
Emancipation Proclamation
(AL) , Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
13th Amendment
1865. Amendement abolishing and continually prohibiting slavery. With limited exception, such as those guilty of committing a crime, it also prevents indentured servitude.
14th Amendment
1868- 1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
15th Amendment
1860- Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Sharecropping (tenant farming)
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
guaranteed African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and prohibited exclusion from jury service. The Supreme Court decided the act was unconstitutional in 1883.
Freedman's Bureau
(1865-72), during the Reconstruction period after the American Civil War, popular name for the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, established by Congress to provide practical aid to 4,000,000 newly freed black Americans in their transition from slavery to freedom
Black Reconstruction
Label applied to political efforts by African Americans after the Civil War, exaggerating black political influence that was in actuality limited mainly to voting.
Hiram Revels
1870, elected to take Mississippi Senate seat from Jefferson Davis. Black
Blanche K. Bruce
An American politician. Bruce represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
Robert Smalls
A sailor and later a Union naval captain, he was highly honored for his feats of bravery and heroism. He became a Congressman after the Civil War.
Carpetbagger
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Scalawag
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
KKK
Southern society formed in 1866 to prevent freed men and women from exercising their rights and to help whites regain power; revised in the 1920's to terrorize foreigners, Catholics, Jews, etc.,
Redeemers
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
Compromise of 1877
..., Ended Reconstruction. Allowed Rutherford B Hayes tp win contested presidential election. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Charles Sumner
A leader of the Radical republicans a He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote. Was literally beaten in the senate
Thaddeus Stevens
A Radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress.
Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson
House voted to Impeach since he violated the Tenure of Office Act, fell one vote short in the senate. set precedent that impeachment should only occur for a serious crime
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1869.
Ostend Manifesto
a declaration (1854) by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
Five Points Neighborhood
Worst slum of NY in 1800's where immigrants, free slaves, and criminals lived in congested buildings, "rookeries"
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a Southern state to form its own government afetr ten percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States
Wade-Davis Bill
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
Jim Crow Laws
State laws in the South that legalized segregation.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal. "Separate but equal."
Charles Townshend
British Prime Minister. Influenced Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts.
Townshend Acts
(4.1) passed by Parliament in 1767, placed taxes on imported materials such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Led to outrage and tons of people boycotted British goods.