Upgrade to remove ads
APES Ch. 12 & 13 Nonrenewable & Renewable Energy
Terms in this set (58)
Nonrenewable energy resources
a source of energy that exits in limited quantities and, once used, cannot be replaced except over the course of millions of years
EX: fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and nuclear fuels
Commercial energy sources
energy sources that are bought and sold such as coal, oil, and natural gas
Subsistence energy sources
those gathered by individuals for their own use such as wood, charcoal, and animal waste
Process of Energy Use
energy source; extraction; transportation; processing; combustion/energy conversion; disposal/transporting waste; energy transmission
The burning fuel from coal transfers energy to water, which becomes steam. The kinetic energy contained within the steam is transferred to the blades of a turbine, a large device that resembles a fan. As the energy in the steam turns the turbine, the shaft in the center of the turbine turns the generator. This mechanical motion generates
Most coal burning power plants are about what percent efficient?
Using a fuel to generate electricity and to produce heat; this improves the efficiency to as high as 90%.
EX: If steam is used for industrial purposes or to heat buildings it is
diverted to turn a turbine first
a solid fuel formed primarily from the remains of trees, ferns, and other
plant materials that were preserved 280-360 million years ago
Four types of coal ranked from?
lesser to greater age, exposure to pressure, and energy content
The four types of coal are:
lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite
The largest coal reserves are in?
the United States, Russia, China, and India
Coal Formation Process
1-Anaerobic-Conditions, in which oxygen is absent or nearly so, since reaction with oxygen destroys the organic matter.
2-First formed under suitable conditions is Peat; can form at the earth's surface.
3-With more heat, pressure, and time, gradually dehydrates the organic matter and transforms the spongy peat into soft brown coal (Lignite) and then to harder coals (Bituminous and Anthracite).
Disadvantages of Coal
Contains impurities, Release impurities into air when burned,Trace metals like mercury, lead, and arsenic are found in coal; Combustion leads to increased levels of sulfur dioxide and other air pollutants into the atmosphere; Ash is left behind Carbon is released into the atmosphere which contributes to climate change
Advantages of Coal
Energy-dense; Plentiful; Easy to exploit by surface mining; Technological demands are small; Economic costs are low; Easy to handle and transport; Needs little refining
a mixture of hydrocarbons, water, and sulfur that occurs in
underground deposits. Oil and gasoline make this ideal for
mobile combustion, such as vehicles.
What was formed from the remains of ocean-dwelling phytoplankton that died 50-150 million years ago?
Countries with the most petroleum are?
Saudi Arabia, Russia, the United States, Iran, China, Canada, and Mexico
Petroleum accumulation underground
migrates to the highest point in a formation of porous rocks and accumulations of petroleum can be removed by drilling a well
Disadvantages of Petroleum
Releases carbon dioxide into atmosphere; Possibility of leaks when
extracted and transported
Advantages of Petroleum
Convenient to transport and use; Relatively energy-dense; Cleaner-burning than coal; Releases sulfur, mercury, lead, and arsenic into the atmosphere when burned
exists as a component of petroleum in the ground as well as in
gaseous deposits separate from petroleum
What does Natural Gas contain?
80 to 95 percent methane and 5 to 20 percent ethane, propane, and
Disadvantages of Natural Gas
When unburned, methane escapes into the atmosphere; Exploration of natural gas has the potential of contaminating groundwater
slow-flowing, viscous deposits of bitumen mixed with sand, water, and
Bitumen (tar or pitch)
a degraded type of petroleum that forms when a petroleum migrates close to the surface, where bacteria metabolize some of the light hydrocarbons and others evaporate.
US energy use per capita and energy intensity
Our energy use per capita has been level while our energy intensity, or energy use per dollar of GDP, has been decreasing in recent years. However, because of our increasing population, our overall energy use continues to increase
A graph that shows a bell-shaped curve representing oil use and projecting both when world oil production will reach a maximum and when we will run out of oil.
the point when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached and at which the rate of production continues to decline
Coal supplies will last for at least?
200 years, and probably much longer
If current global use continues, we will run out of conventional oil in less than?
a nuclear reaction in which a neutron strikes a relatively large atomic nucleus, which then splits into two or more parts
a protective metal tube containing pellets of fuel for a nuclear reactor
cylindrical devices inserted between fuel rods to absorb excess neutrons, slowing or stopping the fission reaction to prevent meltdown
Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
Possibility of accidents; Disposal of the radioactive waste
Advantages of Nuclear Energy
No air pollution is produced; Countries can limit their need for
once the nuclear fuel can not produce enough heat to be used
in a power plant but it continues to emit radioactivity; must be stored in special, highly secure locations because of the danger to living organisms.
High-level radioactive waste
the form used in fuel rods
Low-level radioactive waste
the protective clothing, tools, rags, and other items used in routine plant maintenance.
the reaction that powers the Sun and other stars. This occurs
when lighter nuclei are forced together to produce heavier nuclei and heat is released.
can be rapidly regenerated, and some can never be
depleted, no matter how much of them we use.
finding ways to use less energy. For example, lowering your
thermostat during the winter or driving fewer miles
getting the same result from using a smaller amount of energy.
Benefits of Conservation and Efficiency
Many energy companies have an extra backup source of energy available to meet the peak demand, the greatest quantity of energy used at any one time. Variable price structure
Variable price structure
utility customers can pay less to use energy when demand is lowest and more during peak demand.
Improving the efficiency of the buildings we live and work in.
Passive Solar Energy
can lower your electricity bill without the need for pumps or other mechanical devices; building the house with windows along a south-
facing wall which allows the Sun's rays to warm the house would be an example.
The Sun is the ultimate source of
almost all types of energy
Wood, Charcoal and Manure
used to heat homes throughout the world.
Ethanol and Biodiesel (biofuels)
used as substitutes for gasoline and diesel fuel.
electricity generated by the kinetic energy of moving water. This is the
second most common form of renewable energy in the world.
water is held behind a dam and runs through a channel before returning to the river.
water is stored behind a dam and the gates of the dam are opened and closed controlling the flow of water.
the movement of water is driven by the gravitational pull of the Moon.
Active solar energy
capturing the energy of sunlight with the use of a pump or photovoltaic cell and generating electricity.
using the heat from natural radioactive decay of elements deep within Earth as well as heat coming from Earth.
Earth's internal heat produces
using a wind turbine to convert kinetic energy into electrical energy.
a device that operates like a common battery where electricity is generated by a reaction between two chemicals.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APES Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
APES Chapter 12: Nonrenewable Energy Resources
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
APES Quiz- Chapter 12
Nonrenewable and Renewable Energy
APES chapter 12
APES Chapter 12