Terminology

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Categorical Reasoning
Morality is based upon motives, not outcomes - Kant
Communitariansim
Individuals must work out their moral convictions - Macintyre
Distributive Justice
Justice demands genuine fairness in opportunity - Rawls
Divine Command
Divine scripture communicates the moral law - Adams
Egoism
People are moral when they pursue their own self interest - Rand
Evolutionary Psychology
Morality is based upon evolved characteristics - Pinker & Wright
Feminist Ethics
Morality is based upon care and compassion - Gilligan and Noddings
Libertarianism
Liberty is most important virtue - Nozick
Natural Law
Nature is God's handiwork - Aquinas
Situational Ethics
Being moral depends on circumstances - Fletcher
Social Contract
The government must protect the rights of its citizens - Hobbes & Locke
Utilitarianism
Morality is determined by the consequences of an action - Bentham & Mill
Virtue Ethics
The government must promote virtue - Aristotle