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Essential amino acids:Children

tryptophan,phenylaline,methionine, valine, threonine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and histidine

Essential amino acids:adults

tryptophan, phenylaline, methionine, valine, threonine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine,

Glucose is utilized by cells

fructose, galactose converted to glucose in the liver

glucose, fructose, and galactose

monosaccharides absorbed

not digested or absorbed:roughage(fiber) non digestible polysac.


simple sugars

disaccharides:cane sugar beets, milk
Monosaccharides: honey fruit

glycogen: meats

complex carbohydrates

sum of all chemical reactions



chemicals requited for body function

essential nutrients

cant be synthesized in sufficient quantities
body can't make these

provide energy, carbohydrates, proteins, fats


utilizes energy, vitamins, minerals



process of making glucose

Dietary requirements: Carbohydrates

125-75g/day min to prevent protein loss
55% total cal: 45% of total need to be complex
Roughage (Cellulose): hemicellulose, pectin, lignin

Protein: food

meats, cheese, milk, nuts, cereals, beans, peas, absorbed as amino acids

8 adults, 10 children, complete proteins: meats, milks, and eggs, incomplete proteins: many plants

Essential amino acids

Dietary Requirements: Proteins

minimum: .8g/kg (.4g/lb), recommended:155 of total calories, maintain nitrogen balance


triglycerides, cholesterol


meats, eggs, milk,nuts, oil,( corn, peanuts, olive)

liver, egg yolk, brain, milk, meats (NOT PLANT FOOD)


Essential fatty acid

linoleic acid, linolenic acid ( get these from diet)

Omega 3 fatty acid

polyunsaturated, including 3rd terminal bond, best source is in fish, health benefits include cardiovascular

Dietary Requirements: Lipids

30% total calories-10% saturated, 10% monsaccharides, 10% polysaccharides, 100mg/1,00 calories as cholesterol, no more than 300mg/day

kcals in-kcals out, balance =0, positive: take in too much, store energy, negative : take in to little, use stored energy, weight gain/loss related to energy balance, 3500 kcals/lb fat

Energy Balance

measured in bomb calorimeter, carbohydrates:4.1kcal/g, proteins:4.1kcal/g, fats:9.5 kcal/g

Energy in foods

Carbohydrates & protein energy

4.1 kcal/g

Fats energy

9.5 kcal/g


energy to raise 1 g water 1*C, kcal=calorie=1,000 calories

BMR + Activities =

total energy metabolism

sex, height, weight, age, hormones, emotional state, body temperature, excessive weight fluctuations, and watching t.v

Factors affecting BMR

energy used per day at rest, measured by monitoring O2 consumption, 1 kcal/hr/kg:1,500-2000 kcal/day

Basal metabolic Rate (BMR

not stored to a great degree

water soluble

fat soluble

absorbed with other lipids, stored in body tissue

classes of vitamins

fat soluble and water soluble


organic dietary constituent, needed in small quantities, doesn't supply energy

proper diet

70 kg man:2800 kcals/day, proteins-15%, fats-30%, and carbs 55%, diets must maintain proteins, vitamins, minerals


binds to enzymes, helps enzyme preform its function

Vitamin E

antioxidant, stability of cell membrane

Vitamin K

prothrombin syntheses ( clotting)

Vitamin D

absorption of Ca++

Vitamin A

Visual pigments, normal development bone

B1, pyruvate to Krebs


trace element, enzyme cofactor, essential for use of carbohydrates


trace element, enzyme cofactor, component of certain enzymes


trace element, tooth structure


trace element, cofactor: component pf enzymes involved in digestion, respiration, bone metabolism, live metabolism, necessary for normal wound healing and maintain integrity of the skin


cyanocobalmin,enzyme cofactor, trace element


part of thyroid hormone, trace element


trace element, enzyme cofactor, essential for hemoglobin synthesis, bone development, melanin production and myelin formation


trace element, enzyme cofactor, fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, urea formation and normal functioning of the nervous system


bones, teeth, ATP, ect..., major mineral


trace element, hemoglobin, vit A, enzymes


bone, teeth, nerve/muscle function, major mineral


intracellular osmotic pressure, action potentials, major mineral


part of amino acid, major mineral


extracellular osmotic pressure, action potential, major mineral


extracellular osmotic pressure, HCL, major mineral


cofactor for ATP metabolism. major mineral


needed in relatively small amounts

trace element

needed in relatively large quantities

major mineral

major mineral, trace elements

types of minerals

inorganic substances essential for body function, origin: soil->plant-> animal


C, Coenzyme water soluble, collagen production A.A metabolism, steroid synthesis

ascorbic acid

NAD ( electron transport)
^ co enzyme I, water soluble


A.A and protein synthesis, water soluble


B2, FAD(electron transport), water soluble, co enzyme



is an electron carrier in the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain

B12, nucleic acid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, water soluble, coenzyme


folic acid, water soluble, DNA synthesis, RBC production, coenzyme


A.A and F.A metabolism, water soluble, coenzyme


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