How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Nutrition

STUDY
PLAY
Essential amino acids:Children
tryptophan,phenylaline,methionine, valine, threonine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and histidine
Essential amino acids:adults
tryptophan, phenylaline, methionine, valine, threonine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine,
Glucose is utilized by cells
fructose, galactose converted to glucose in the liver
glucose, fructose, and galactose
monosaccharides absorbed
not digested or absorbed:roughage(fiber) non digestible polysac.
Cellulose
simple sugars
disaccharides:cane sugar beets, milk
Monosaccharides: honey fruit
starch:grain,vegetable
glycogen: meats
complex carbohydrates
sum of all chemical reactions
metabolism
Nutrients
chemicals requited for body function
essential nutrients
cant be synthesized in sufficient quantities
body can't make these
provide energy, carbohydrates, proteins, fats
macronutrients
utilizes energy, vitamins, minerals
micronutrients
gluconeogenesis
process of making glucose
Dietary requirements: Carbohydrates
125-75g/day min to prevent protein loss
55% total cal: 45% of total need to be complex
Roughage (Cellulose): hemicellulose, pectin, lignin
Protein: food
meats, cheese, milk, nuts, cereals, beans, peas, absorbed as amino acids
8 adults, 10 children, complete proteins: meats, milks, and eggs, incomplete proteins: many plants
Essential amino acids
Dietary Requirements: Proteins
minimum: .8g/kg (.4g/lb), recommended:155 of total calories, maintain nitrogen balance
Lipids
triglycerides, cholesterol
triglycerides
meats, eggs, milk,nuts, oil,( corn, peanuts, olive)
liver, egg yolk, brain, milk, meats (NOT PLANT FOOD)
cholesterol
Essential fatty acid
linoleic acid, linolenic acid ( get these from diet)
Omega 3 fatty acid
polyunsaturated, including 3rd terminal bond, best source is in fish, health benefits include cardiovascular
Dietary Requirements: Lipids
30% total calories-10% saturated, 10% monsaccharides, 10% polysaccharides, 100mg/1,00 calories as cholesterol, no more than 300mg/day
kcals in-kcals out, balance =0, positive: take in too much, store energy, negative : take in to little, use stored energy, weight gain/loss related to energy balance, 3500 kcals/lb fat
Energy Balance
measured in bomb calorimeter, carbohydrates:4.1kcal/g, proteins:4.1kcal/g, fats:9.5 kcal/g
Energy in foods
Carbohydrates & protein energy
4.1 kcal/g
Fats energy
9.5 kcal/g
Unit:calorie
energy to raise 1 g water 1*C, kcal=calorie=1,000 calories
BMR + Activities =
total energy metabolism
sex, height, weight, age, hormones, emotional state, body temperature, excessive weight fluctuations, and watching t.v
Factors affecting BMR
energy used per day at rest, measured by monitoring O2 consumption, 1 kcal/hr/kg:1,500-2000 kcal/day
Basal metabolic Rate (BMR
not stored to a great degree
water soluble
fat soluble
absorbed with other lipids, stored in body tissue
classes of vitamins
fat soluble and water soluble
Vitamins
organic dietary constituent, needed in small quantities, doesn't supply energy
proper diet
70 kg man:2800 kcals/day, proteins-15%, fats-30%, and carbs 55%, diets must maintain proteins, vitamins, minerals
co-enzymes
binds to enzymes, helps enzyme preform its function
Vitamin E
antioxidant, stability of cell membrane
Vitamin K
prothrombin syntheses ( clotting)
Vitamin D
absorption of Ca++
Vitamin A
Visual pigments, normal development bone
B1, pyruvate to Krebs
Thiamine
trace element, enzyme cofactor, essential for use of carbohydrates
Chromium
trace element, enzyme cofactor, component of certain enzymes
Selenium
trace element, tooth structure
Fluorine
trace element, cofactor: component pf enzymes involved in digestion, respiration, bone metabolism, live metabolism, necessary for normal wound healing and maintain integrity of the skin
zink
cyanocobalmin,enzyme cofactor, trace element
cobalt
part of thyroid hormone, trace element
iodine
trace element, enzyme cofactor, essential for hemoglobin synthesis, bone development, melanin production and myelin formation
copper
trace element, enzyme cofactor, fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, urea formation and normal functioning of the nervous system
manganese
bones, teeth, ATP, ect..., major mineral
phosphorus
trace element, hemoglobin, vit A, enzymes
iron
bone, teeth, nerve/muscle function, major mineral
calcium
intracellular osmotic pressure, action potentials, major mineral
potassium
part of amino acid, major mineral
sulfur
extracellular osmotic pressure, action potential, major mineral
sodium
extracellular osmotic pressure, HCL, major mineral
chlorine
cofactor for ATP metabolism. major mineral
magnesium
needed in relatively small amounts
trace element
needed in relatively large quantities
major mineral
major mineral, trace elements
types of minerals
inorganic substances essential for body function, origin: soil->plant-> animal
minerals
C, Coenzyme water soluble, collagen production A.A metabolism, steroid synthesis
ascorbic acid
NAD ( electron transport)
^ co enzyme I, water soluble
Niacin
A.A and protein synthesis, water soluble
B6
B2, FAD(electron transport), water soluble, co enzyme
Riboflavin
FAD
is an electron carrier in the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
B12, nucleic acid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, water soluble, coenzyme
cyanocobalamin
folic acid, water soluble, DNA synthesis, RBC production, coenzyme
Folacin
A.A and F.A metabolism, water soluble, coenzyme
Biotin