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Small Animal Diseases: Cardio
Terms in this set (85)
Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy
The most common acquired cardiovascular disease in the dog.
This is mainly seen in older, large and giant breeds; and it is rare in dogs that weigh less than 12 kgs.
Sudden death can occur. There is no cure, the goal is to make the animal comfortable (digoxin,
Client ed: sudden death.
Canine Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
This is uncommon in dogs,
more common in cats.
The left ventricle's muscle hypertrophies, this decreases the filling capacity of the ventricle, and it can block the flow of blood during systole. It is thought to be a heritable condition.
Client ed: sudden death/congestive heart failure.
How are canine cardiomyopathies diagnosed?
Feline Dilated Cardiomyopathy was associated with a ______ deficiency in cats.
List 2 treatments for Feline Dilated Cardiomyopathy.
What is Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
when the left ventricle hypertrophies
Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
This is when the left ventricle hypertrophies. The cause of the may be related to abnormal myocardial myosin or calcium transport within the muscles of the heart. It is similar to the disease in dogs. Average survival from diagnosis is 700 days.
What are some clinical signs for Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
Quiet systolic murmur, gallop rhythm, acute onset of heart failure
What is the cause of Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
abnormal myocardial myosin or calcium transport in heart muscles
How is Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy treated?
Diltiazem and Furosemide
What are the sites for thrombi in cats?
left side of heart, renal artery, cerebral arteries, and mesenteric arteries
90% of thrombi will lodge at the ______________. "Saddle thrombi."
distal aortic trifurcation
What are some characteristic clinical signs of Thromboembolism?
-rear leg pain
-cold foot pads
-cant palpate femoral pulse
What are 2 treatments used for Thromboembolism?
Heparin and Prophylaxis
What is patent ductus arteriosus? May be patent in puppies less than four days of age it generally closes by seven or eight days after birth.
when the ductus arterioles doesn't close after the animal is born
What is the main clinical sign of patent ductus arteriosus?
Murmur heard on left side
Patent ductus arteriosus must be surgically treated before ______ of age.
common in the cat. Blood will usually go from the left side of the heart to the right. This causes the right side of the heart to be overloaded.
Atrial Septal Defect
Left side of the heart is usually overloaded and enlarged.
Ventricular Septal Defect
What is the clinical sign of an Atrial Septal Defect?
Soft systolic murmur
What is the clinical sign of a Ventricular Septal Defect?
Harsh systolic murmur
How are Atrial & Ventricular Septal Defects treated?
medical management of congestive heart failure
When the pulmonic valves are dysplastic or malformed. As a result of this, the outflow tract from the right ventricle is narrowed, causes increased ventricular pressure, results in right ventricular hypertroph,
the right atrium becomes enlarged.
If it is severe, cardiac output is limited during exercise.
What are some clinical signs of stenotic valve?
Tiring during exercise, right sided congestive heart disease, jugular pulses, murmur on left side
How is stenotic valve treated?
Valvulotomy and medical management of congestive heart failure
What are the 4 players in the Tetralogy of Fallot?
1. Pulmonic stenosis
2. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
3. Ventricular Septal Defect
4. Overriding Aorta
The murmur associated with Tetralogy of Fallot is heard on the _____ side.
What is polycythemia?
increase in RBCs
What is pulmonic stenosis?
narrowing of the pulmonary valve
What is right ventricular hypertrophy?
thickening of the wall of right ventricle
What is an overriding aorta?
displacement of aorta over ventricular septal defect
What is a ventricular septal defect?
opening between left and right ventricles
How is Tetralogy of Fallot treated?
Cardiopulmonary bypass, exercise restriction, phlebotomy to remove excess RBCs
Persistent Right Aortic Arch
If this blood vessel persists in the newborn, the esophagus is trapped between it and the heart. This inhibits the growth and function of the esophagus, thus restricting food passage to the stomach.
What are some clinical signs of Persistent Right Aortic Arch?
-regurgitation of solid food
How is Persistent Right Aortic Arch diagnosed?
radiographs with administration of barium
How is Persistent Right Aortic Arch maintained if not surgically treated at a young age?
-feed a soft diet
-feed while animal is elevated
-antibiotics for respiratory infection
The most common cardiovascular disorder in small animal medicine.
Chronic Mitral Valve insufficiency
One of the most common causes of Chronic Mitral Valve Insufficiency is chronic ________ ______ in older dogs.
What are some clinical signs of Chronic Mitral Valve Insufficiency?
What are 2 treatments for Chronic Mitral Valve Insufficiency?
No cure for this. Low salt diets help. Client ed: There will come a time when meds won't work anymore and the animal will have to be euthanized.
Signs are those seen with right sided heart failure. Repeated abdominocentesis may be required.
Triscupid Valve Insufficiency
This is seen when there is no organized atrial contraction.
Causes cardiac output to decrease.
This is usually associated with advanced stages of chronic atrioventricular valve insufficiency or cardiomyopathy. Seems to be
more prevalent in large breed dogs and dogs with cardiac diseases that cause an increase in the size of the heart.
Does not have a P wave
What are some clinical signs of atrial fibrillation?
-rapid irregular heart rate
What are some treatments used for atrial fibrillation?
What is the treatment for atrial fibrillation that can only be used in dogs?
What are 2 atrial fibrillation client ed points?
-rechecks are a must
-can lead to congestive heart failure
This can be associated with congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathies, endocarditis, myocarditis, or neoplasia. Electrolyte imbalances and acid/ base abnormalities can also cause this.
This can lead to ventricular fibrillation.
What are some clinical signs of Ventricular Tachycardia?
congestive heart failure and sudden death
What are some treatments used for Ventricular Tachycardia?
There is a lack of organized QRS complexes, no heart sound can be asculted, no palpable pulse, and blood pressure can not be measured. This is a life-threatening condition and has to be treated immediately.
These breeds more commonly have sudden death with Ventricular Fibrillation.
German Shepherds and Boxers
This is a common, normal occurrence in dogs. It is related to the breathing pattern of the dog. The heart rate will increase during inspiration and decreases during expiration.
It is not seen in the cat.
Commonly seen, especially in
large breed dogs and athletic animals.
The ECG will appear normal, and the heart rate will be less than 70 bpm.
Brachiocephalic dogs and cats can experience this when intubated.
How are canine HW diagnosed?
Radiology and antigen test
How are feline HW diagnosed?
antibody test and radiology
What is used to treat adult HW in the dog?
What is used to treat microfilaricide after the adulticide treatment for HW in dogs?
HW symptoms in cats mostly relate to the...
respiratory system or GI tract
How are cats treated for HW?
cage rest and corticosteroids
In the dog, heartworms are found where?
right ventricle and pulmonary artery
The heart normally takes up between ______ intercostal spaces in the dog.
2 1/2 to 3 1/2
The heart normally takes up between ______ intercostal spaces in the cat.
2 1/2 to 3
What percentage of space should the heart take up from sternum to spine?
You should be able to view _____ % of the heart in a DV view of the dog.
You should be able to view no more than _____ % of the heart in a DV view of the cat.
Pericardial effusion is associated with _____ in the dog.
Pericardial effusion is associated with __________________ in the cat.
congestive heart failure
What are some clinical signs of pericardial effusion?
Muffled heart sounds, weak pulses, abdominal distension
How is pericardial effusion treated?
Fluid is removed from pericardial sac from right side of animal
______ BPM is diagnostic for tachycardia.
_______ are characterized by a premature ventricular contraction without a preceding P wave
Ventricular Premature Contraction (PVC)
What treatment is given for ventricular premature contractions?
Ventricular Premature Contraction
Most common rhythm of cardiac arrest in vet med.
pulseless electrical activity
Pulseless Electrical Activity
1st Degree AV block
2nd Degree AV block, Mobitz 1
2nd Degree AV block, Moritz 2
3rd Degree AV block
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