151 terms

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95 Theses
piece written by Martin Luther against clerical abuses and sale of indulgences
absolutism
belief that a state should be ruled by one person who has total power
Act of Supremacy
Parliament ends the authority of the pope in England, leading to the formation of the Anglican Church
Adam Smith
economist who wrote "Wealth of Nations" and promoted economic liberalism
Anabaptist
radical Christian group that believed in adult baptism and separation of church from state
balance of power
cooperation between European states to assure no single state becomes too powerful
Baroque
style of art/music that is ornamental and emotional, commonly associated with the Catholic Reformation
Calvinism
Protestant denomination that believes in absolute power of God and predestination
Cardinal Richelieu
chief minister under Louis XIII who essentially controlled France, sided with Protestants in the Thirty Years' War, and minimized power of nobles
Carlsbad Decree
conservative law suppressing subversive ideas and liberal organizations in university settings
Castiglione
humanist figure who wrote The Courtier and encouraged personal growth
Catherine the Great
ruler of Russia who continued westernization, ended torture, offered limited religious toleration, and supported education
Charles I
English monarch who fought Parliament during English Civil War and was executed for treason
Charles II
English monarch who passed Test Act and restored the monarchy and both houses of Parliament
Chartist Movement
British seeking of universal male suffrage, secret ballot, equal populations for parliamentary districts, and abolishing property requirements for House of Commons
Christian humanism
form of humanism based in Northern Europe that combined the Bible with classical texts
Christine de Pizan
first feminist who refuted myths about women
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
law requiring clergy to support French National Assembly, making church officials elected, and confiscating Catholic lands (1790)
Combination Acts
British law forbidding labor unions, repealed during Industrial Revolution
Committee of Public Safety
branch of National Convention that worked to eliminate all inside and outside threats to French Revolution
Concert of Europe
group of Great Powers trying to maintain balance of power and prevent revolution
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon promises church that a majority of Frenchmen will be Catholic
Concordat of Bologna
agreement giving French kings control over appointment and policies of church officials
Confederation of the Rhine
group of German states controlled by Napoleon's empire
Congress of Vienna
General peace settlement after defeat of Napoleon that involved Russia, Austria, Prussia, Britain, and France
conservatism
ideology of preserving tradition, maintaining balance of power, opposing civil liberties, and avoiding revolution
constitutionalism
system of government based on a written document of basic principles
Copernicus
Figure of scientific revolution who formulated heliocentric model and published "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies"
cottage system
production of goods within people's homes using hand tools
Council of Trent
group of Catholics who reaffirm Catholic principles but take reform measures
David Ricardo
economist who came up with Iron Law of Wages
Declaration of Rights of Man
French constitution written by National Assembly
Diderot
Enlightenment figure who published "Encyclopedia" and promoted social progress and reform
Directory
corrupt five-man executive (accompanied by legislature) formed in 1795 that began weak dictatorship over France
Edict of Nantes
command for limited religious freedom of Huguenots in France
Elizabeth I
politique who brought many Protestant ideas into Church of England, let people practice whatever religion they wanted at home, and resisted invasion of Spanish Armada
empiricism
theory that knowledge comes only from sensory experience
enclosure
transition from open-field system to fenced-in fields, farming more effectively
English Bill of Rights
Set of English laws protecting individual rights and establishing relationship between king and Parliament
English Civil War
Conflict between Charles I and Parliament over government power
Erasmus
Christian humanist who wrote The Praise of Folly and wanted a reform of the Catholic Church
Estates General
French legislature called in 1788 formed by three separate social groups
Eugene Delacroix
romantic artist who painted Liberty Leading the People
Ferdinand and Isabella
rulers of Spain who created equivalent of national church, oversaw the Reconquista, and established Spanish Inquisition
Frederick the Great
ruler of Prussia who wrote new code of law, welcomed religious minorities, and took Silesia
Frederick William I
Prussian king responsible for Prussian absolutism and continuing militarization
Frederick William the Great Elector
Austrian ruler who unified separate states and started process of militarization
Fronde
noble-led rebellion in France against king's authority and the intendant system
Galileo
Figure of scientific revolution who used controlled experiments, formalized concept of inertia, and looked at space with telescope
German Peasants' War
revolt of German lower classes calling for social/political change using the Scriptures
Girondists
moderate republicans who didn't want the execution of the king
Glorious Revolution
end of the divine right monarchy in England
Great Famine
event in Ireland that led to a 25% drop in population
guild
trade based-association with a monopoly over its own trade, special privileges for members, and assurance of high-quality goods
Habsburg-Valois Wars
series of wars in Renaissance Italy involving Spain, France, Holy Roman Empire, and Italian city-states
Henry VIII
first head of the Church of England
Huguenots
term for French Calvinists
humanism
program of study through classical works focusing on understanding human nature, reaching ideals, self-improvement, and virtú
Ignatius Loyola
founder of Society of Jesus
Isaac Newton
Figure of scientific revolution who published "Principia," created three laws of motion, and discussed idea of "world machine"
Jacobins
very radical republicans who wanted the execution of the king
James I
English monarch who believed in divine right to rule and absolute power; battled with both Parliament and Puritans
James II
English monarch who violated Test Act and was replaced by Glorious Revolution
Johannes Kepler
Figure of scientific revolution who created three laws of planetary motion
John Calvin
figure of Protestant Reformation who wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion" and believed in absolute power of God
John Locke
English philosopher who believed in protecting natural rights
junkers
Prussian nobles
Joseph II
ruler of Austria who abolished serfdom and promoted religious toleration, even though his reforms didn't last
Legislative Assembly
French legislature formed in 1791 that declared war on Austria and Prussia when they supported the monarchy
liberalism
ideology of civil rights, liberty, and representative government
Lorenzo Valla
humanist figure who exposed the Donation of Constantine as a forgery
Louis XIV
French monarch responsible for absolutism and revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis XVI
weak monarch of France who gives in to efforts for a constitutional monarchy and is executed during the Reign of Terror
Machiavelli
humanist figure who wrote The Prince and stated leaders should maintain order at all costs
Martin Luther
main figure of Protestant Reformation and author of "Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences"
Marxian socialism
ideology of eliminating class struggles to fix societal problems, based on The Communist Manifesto
Medici family
Florentine dynasty of successful merchants, patrons of the arts, and future popes
Michel de Montaigne
Christian humanist who popularized essay as a literary genre and expressed his doubts about the universe
Montesquieu
Enlightenment figure who promoted separation of powers
Napoleon
emperor of France from 1804 to 1814 who used domestic policy to maintain popularity and order
Napoleonic Code
French civil code reasserting "Declaration of Rights of Man" and explaining civil rights, property, etc.
National Assembly
French legislature formed in 1789 that wrote Declaration of the Rights of Man
National Convention
Legislature formed in 1792 during the radical revolution that declares France a republic
nationalism
ideology of ethnic groups sharing common identity and desire for politically independent state
New Monarchs
term describing powerful rulers of Europe who formed loyal armies, had some power over the Catholic church, and maintained centralized governments excluding nobles
Oliver Cromwell
English military dictator and lord protector who dismissed Parliament
open-field system
division of large fields into long, narrow strips that are not communal
Peace of Augsburg
German states earn the right to choose their official religion and acknowledging Lutheranism as a religion, ending the Schmalkaldic Wars
Peace of Utrecht
Treaty ending War of Spanish Succession, stating that France and Spanish monarchies cannot join, and giving Austria control of former Spanish Netherlands
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty ending Thirty Years' War, reaffirming Peace of Augsburg, and recognizing Calvinism as a religion for German states
Peter the Great
Russian tsar of Romanov Dynasty responsible for westernization and militarization
Philip II
son of Charles V who failed as a leader in the Netherlands and lost battles to English Fleet
Petition of Right
English constitutional document giving Parliament power to approve and reject laws, especially taxes
Pico della Mirandola
humanist figure who wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man and emphasized potential for human greatness
putting-out system
production of goods where merchants loan materials to cottage workers who return the finished product
Reconquista
reconquering of Iberian Peninsula that had been taken by Muslim powers
Reform Bill of 1832
British law that extended voting rights to middle class men and eliminated "rotten" boroughs
Reign of Terror
period where National Convention attempted to carry out the "war against tyranny" through mass execution
Renaissance
rebirth of classical Greek/Roman ideas that focused on humanism and the liberal arts
Rene Descartes
Figure of scientific revolution who used deductive reasoning and believed in Cartesian dualism
Revolution of 1830: Belgium
country gains independence and becomes Kingdom of the Netherlands
Revolution of 1830: France
country replaces Charles X with Louis Philippe to prevent return to autocratic rule
Revolution of 1830: Italy
country fails to overthrow Austrian rule (carbonari)
Revolution of 1848: France
country becomes a republic and then goes back to an empire
Revolution of 1848: Austria
country maintains control over Hungarian and Italian nationalists
Revolution of 1848: Prussia
country tries to unify Germany but fails when leader takes back his offer to rule, reestablishing German Confederation
Robespierre
Jacobin leader of Committee of Public Safety who was executed to put an end to the Reign of Terror
romanticism
artistic movement of emotion, freedom of thought, personal connection to God, and anti-Enlightenment ideas
Rousseau
Enlightenment figure who promoted emotion over rationalism, also wrote "The Social Contract" and believed in general will
salons
locations where rich women hosted discussions about literature, science, and philosophy
Sans-culottes
radical group of laboring poor who helped overthrow Louis XVI and took over Paris' municipal government
Seven Years' War
first "global" war that involved much of Europe, including Britain, France, Spain, and Prussia
Spanish Inquisition
group investigating converts' faith to Catholicism and punishing Jews/Muslims who maintained their original religion
Storming of Bastille
commoners seize arms and attack a royal prison, leading Louis XVI to withdraw troops from Paris (1789)
Tennis Court Oath
Third Estate decides to write a new constitution and forms National Assembly
Thermidorian Reaction
reaction to Reign of Terror that led to Robespierre's execution, abolition of economic controls, and reconciliation with Catholic Church
Thirty Years' War
conflict between Protestant Union and Catholic League over political and religious influence
Thomas Hobbes
English philosopher who believed in absolutism and preserving order at all costs
Thomas More
Christian humanist and author of Utopia
Treaty of Paris
agreement that ended the Seven Years' War: Britain take France's territory in North America/India and Prussia maintains control of Silesia
utopian socialism
ideology of economic equality, collectivism, minimal private property, and right to work
Voltaire
Enlightenment figure who promoted religious tolerance and the separation of church from state
William and Mary
English monarchs who take power during Glorious Revolution and end absolutism
Women's March on Versailles
Revolt where women invaded the National Assembly and the royal apartments (1789)
Diplomatic Revolution
(diplomatic revolution)
Great Northern War
war where Russia's victory under Peter the Great leads to control over Baltic Sea
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish ruler during Thirty Years' War whose death caused France to help Sweden
Henry IV
French king and politique who wrote Edict of Nantes
Isabelle d'Este
famous female art patron of Renaissance
Colbert
French Minister of Finances under Louis XIV who promoted mercantilism
Metternich
Austrian foreign minister who promoted conservatism and Concert of Europe
Luddites
group of workers who broke into factories and destroyed machinery
Methodist
Protestant denomination founded by John Wesley in the 1700s
Pietism
17th century movement for revival of personal connection to God in Lutheran Church
politique
type of leader who puts order ahead of personal beliefs
Pragmatic Sanction
treaty violated when Frederick the Great takes Silesia from Maria Theresa
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese leader who founded a school for the study of navigation/geography
Puritan
English Protestant denomination known for simple lifestyle
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
thousands of French Huguenots and other Protestants killed at wedding of Henry of Navarre
Francis Bacon
scientist known for inductive reasoning
Jesuit
Catholic denomination known for education and missionary work
Star Chamber
secret English court used to deal with aristocrats who threatened royal power
taille
tax on land
Thomas Malthus
economist who believed population will always grows faster than food supply
virtú
quality of being able to shape the world according to one's own will
War of Austrian Succession
war started by the violation of the Pragmatic Sanction
robot
system of forced labor in Eastern Europe
Battle of Lepanto
Philip II defeats Ottoman Turks and prevents their further invasion of Europe
Bossuet
French bishop who pushed idea of divine right to rule
intendant system
system used by French monarchy to limit power of the nobles
Schmalkaldic Wars
religious wars during mid-1500s where Charles V and Catholics fought German princes and Lutherans